澳门微尼斯人手机版中国人民革命战争时期邮票_艺术家资讯_雅昌新闻

中国人民革命战争时期邮票

  二、抗日战争时期(19371945)

The Postage Stamps of Chinese Peoples Revolutionary War Period

  Part B. The Period of Anti-Japanese War (1937-1945)

中国人民革命战争时期的邮票,习惯上又称中国解放区邮票(或简称区票)。

  1937年7月7日,抗日战争全面爆发。中国共产党领导的抗日根据地和不断扩大的解放区相继建立抗日民主政权,并创办抗日邮政或战时邮政,主要任务是为党政军通信联络服务,发行报刊,进行抗日宣传,并根据各地区的条件收寄民众的信件。

The postage stamps of Chinese peoples revolutionary war period are
called customarily the stamps of Chinas liberated areas.

  Anti-Japanese war took place on 7th July 1937. Anti-Japanese
democracy regime was built up in Anti-Japanese bases leading by China
Communist Party (CCP) and increasing liberated areas, anti-Japanese Post
and War-time Post were also set up, whose main tasks were providing
communication service for CCP-Government-Military, issuing newspaper,
propagandizing anti-Japanese thinking and civil letter communications.

1927年8月1日,在中国共产党领导下,举行了闻名中外的南昌起义。同年九月,毛泽东同志发动秋收起义,率领工农武装走上井冈山,建立了第一个革命根据地,中国新民主主义革命从此进入了土地革命战争时期。

  1937年11月,华北晋察冀边区建立临时邮政总局,12月发行了抗日根据地第一套邮票《半白日图》(While
Half Sun Issue)
1分和5分两种。1938年9月又发行一套《抗战军人纪念邮票》(Soldier of War
Against Japanese
Aggression),无面值,供军人免费寄信用。这也是解放区邮票中第一套纪念邮票。此外,晋冀鲁豫边区交通总局、山东战时邮务总局以及苏中区、淮南区、盐阜区等邮政机构陆续发行邮票。如:山东清河区战时邮局于1940年10月发行了《清河战时邮票》(Qinghe
War-Time
Stamps);1944年3月山东战时邮务总局率先在抗日根据地发行毛泽东像邮票;淮南交通总站于1942年底开始发行印有平(挂号信)(Registered
letter)、机(机密)(confidential letter)、快(机密快件) (confidential
express letter)字样的无面值邮票,
1943年初又增发稿字(报刊通讯员专用)(specially used for news
release)和私字(私人信件)(personal letter)邮票,其中稿字邮票为世界珍邮。

On August 1st, 1927, the world-known Nanchang Uprising was held in
Nanchang under the leadership of the Communist Party of China. In
September of the same year, Mao Zedong launched the Autumn Harvest
Uprising, led an armed forces of workers and peasants up to Jing Gang
Mountains and set up the first revolutionary base there, signifying that
the New-Democratic Revolution had entered upon the phase of the Agrarian
Revolutionary War.

  1941年至1943年,日寇疯狂地对抗日根据地进行残酷扫荡,仅冀中区就被分割成2670个小块,但始终也未能割断四通八达的战时交通网。许多根据地邮政人员不顾生命安危,通过半公开交通、秘密交通和武装交通三种方式传递党政军的档、书信、报刊和寄递人民群众的信件。

自第一个革命根据地建立到新中国成立的二十多年中,随着革命根据地和解放区的不断发展壮大,建立了人民政权和邮政通信事业。人民邮政是整个革命事业的一个重要组成部分。

  In November, 1937 the provisional postal administration was set up
in Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei anti-Japanese base of north China, in December
the first set stamp White Half Sun was issued with 1 fen and 5 fen
denominations. Another set of Soldier of War Against Japanese
Aggressionstamp was issued in September 1938, without denomination for
military soldiers free use. This is the first set of commemorative stamp
of liberated areas. Furthermore, stamps were issued in succession in
Shanxi-Hebei-Shandong-Henan general communication bureau, Shandong
war-time postal administration and the postal service in Fenral Jiangsu,
Huainan and Yanfu areas etc. For example, War-time postal administration
in Qinghe district of Shandong province issued Qinghe War-time Stamps in
October 1940; Shandong war-time general postal administration firstly
issued Mao Zedong portrait stampsin anti-Japanese base areas; Huainan
communication bureau issued stamps without denomination on which
registered letter, confidential letterorconfidential express letterwere
printed in end of 1942, as well stamps used for specially used for news
release and personal letterwere issued in beginning of 1943. Stamp
forspecially used for news releasewas one of treasure stamps worldwide.

From the time the first revolutionary base came into being to the
founding of New China in 1949, 20-odd years passed, during which the
peoples political power and postal service were established with the
expansion of the revolutionary bases and the liberated areas. The
peoples post played an important role in the revolutionary cause.

  Japan military carried out cruel aggressions against anti-Japanese
base areas from 1941 to 1943, up to 2670 small grids was divided in
Fenral Hebei area, however the war-time communication nets survived and
still worked. Lots of post stuff regardless of personal safety kept
delivering CCP-Government-Military letters, documents and newspaper and
civil letters via of half-public, confidential and armed communication
ways.

在土地革命战争初期,部分边区建立了赤色邮政,1930年前后发行了赤色邮票,这是我国人民邮政发行邮票的开始。1931年,在中央革命根据地成立了中华苏维埃共和国,1932年成立了中央邮政总局,下设省邮务管理局、县邮局以及县以下的邮站等邮政机构,此后的抗日战争时期和第三次国内革命战争时期,是人民邮政大发展时期。为了通信需要,各解放区都建立了人民邮政,许多地区还发行了邮票。在漫长的革命战争年代,人民邮政发行如此大量的邮票,这在世界邮政史上是罕见的。解放区邮票是在中国人民革命战争的特定历史条件下产生的,从一个侧面忠实地记载了中国革命发展的历程。它不但是中国邮票中的瑰宝,也是我国珍贵的革命文物。

  为了实现统一战线,沟通国民党统治区与解放区的邮政联系,中共中央向国民党政府提出互相通邮的建议。1938年春,陕甘宁边区政府同意将边区邮政机构并人中华邮政管理体系。同年5月,成立边区通讯站。1941年底,中华邮政总局第三军邮总视察林卓午乘邮车到延安,就国共双方互相通邮事宜进行协商,受到毛泽东、周恩来的接见和款待。

In the early days of the Agrarian Revolutionary Civil War, the Red Post
was built in some border areas. Around 1930, the Red Stamp was issued,
marking the beginning of the stamp issuance by the peoples post. In
1931, the Chinese Soviet Republic was founded in the central
revolutionary base and in 1932 the Central D. G. of Posts was set up,
embodying provincial head offices, county post offices, and town postal
stations. During the War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression and
the Third Revolutionary Civil War, the peoples post expanded greatly. To
meet the needs of communications, all the liberated areas built up
postal services, many of which issued stamps. It can be said that such a
large amount of stamps of liberated areas issued under the specific war
conditions are rarely seen in the history of the world post. They
trustily recorded from one aspect the development of the Chinese
revolution. They are not only Chinas philatelic gems and revolutionary
relics, but also pearls of the world philately.

  With aim to realize anti-Japanese national united front and strength
communications between the Kuomintang (KMT) areas and liberated areas,
CCP proposed post mutual communication with KMT government.
Shan-Gan-Ning liberated area government agreed to merge liberated post
to Chinese post service in beginning of 1938 and border area
communication station was set up in May of same year. Head supervisor of
third military post of Chinese Post Service, Lin Zhuowu, visited Yanan
by post vehicle, had negotiations for issue of mutual post communication
between CCP and KMT, got warm reception by Mao Zedong and Zhou Enlai.

中国解放区邮票,是在战争环境中印制和发行的,许多邮票的档案散失,因此增添了查证的困难。。从1927年到1950年6月,中国新民主主义革命战争时期,各苏维埃邮政、抗日邮政、解放区邮政共有70多个区、150多个人民邮政机构发行了2300多种邮票(包括包裹印纸,汇兑印纸,邮资明信片,邮资信封,邮简)。这些邮票不仅满足了战时的通信需要,而且还记载了革命历史、鼓舞军民斗志、争取战争胜利,具有鲜明的时代感。

  (一) 华北

The stamps of Chinas liberated areas need investigation and
verification, for they were printed and issued under the tough war
conditions and many of their material and archives were lost. From 1927
to June of 1950,more than 2300 kinds of stamps including parcel post
stamps, money order stamps, stamped postcards, stamped envelopes and
stamped letter sheets, were issued by 150 postal establishments of more
than 70 liberated areas. These stamps were issued but only to meet
war-time communication needs also to record revolutionary history,
inspire military and civilian morale of strive for the victory of
war,with the bright time feeling.

  North China

一、土地革命战争时期(19271937)

  1.半白日图邮票

Part A. The Period of Agrarian Revolutionary War(19271937)

  1. While Half Sun Issue

1927年至1928年,湘赣边界地区建立起最早的赤色邮政。1930年5、6月间,赣西南赤色邮政总局发行了解放区的第一套邮票。据中华邮政档案记载:票系方形薄纸,盖以红朱,略似图记,四周及中央刻有星形,上有赤色邮政一分等字样,至今未见实物。10月,该局第二次发行赤色邮票,有实寄封存世。同一时间,闽西交通总局发行了一套2种锤镰五星图赤色邮票,并售出共4200多枚。此后至1931年12月,湘赣边省、赣东北、江西、湘鄂西等革命根据地也先后建立了赤色邮政管理机构,发行了赤色邮政邮票。

  1937年9月,八路军115师在平型关战役后,以山西省五台山为中心,向察南、冀西挺进,创立北岳抗日根据地。1938年1月10日,晋察冀边区军政民代表大会在北岳阜平县召开,选举产生边区临时行政委员会。在晋察冀边区抗日根据地形成的同时,于1937年冬创办邮政组织,最初称晋冀察边区临时政府,后来改称晋察冀边区临时邮政。

From 1927 to 1928, Hunan-Jiangxi Border Area built the earliest red
post. Between May and June, 1930, the first set of stamps of liberated
areas was issued by Red Postal Administration of Southwest Jiangxi.
According to the Chinese postal service records, the stamp was square
thin sheet of paper, printed in red, just like seal, around and central
of the design engraved with star, with Chinese characters of Chinese Red
Posts and denomination of 1 fen, but its matter have not found so far.
In October of the same year, Red Postal Administration of Southwest
Jiangxi issued again stamps of red posts. This set of stamps only has
been seen on the cover. At the same time a set of 2 stamps of red posts
with hammer, sickle and five-star design was issued by Communication
Bureau of West Fujian, more than 4200 stamps were sold. Until December
of 1931, some red postal administrations were set up, and released red
posts stamps in the revolutionary base areas of Hunan-Jiangxi Border
Province, Northeast Fujian, Jiangxi and West Hunan-Hubei and so on.

  1937年12月至1938年1月间,晋冀察边区临时邮政发行华北解放区首套邮票
半白日图邮票,1分(蓝色)、5分(蓝色与黑色),油印版印刷,无齿孔。目前已知5分邮票存世仅5枚(图2-1)。

中国工农红军1934年10月长征北上抗日前,曾在长江南北建立15个根据地。根据地交通方便,大部份都曾建立过名称不同的邮政交通机构。据现有史料和实物,可证实,其中有六个分布在江西、福建、浙江、湖南、湖北等省的根据地和地处江西瑞金的中央苏区,先后发行过邮票,也就是(1)赣西南Southwest
Jiangxi,(2)闽西West
Fujian,(3)湘赣Hunan-Jiangxi,(4)江西Jiangxi,(5)赣东北Northeast
Fujian,(6)湘鄂西West Hunan-Hubei,(7)中央苏维埃Central Soviet
Area,(8)陕西苏区Shanxi Soviet Area。苏区共有8个根据地发行邮票。

  In September 1937 after Pingxingguan Battle, the 115 division of
Eighth Route Army marched forward to South Chahar and West Hebei with
fener of Mount Wutai Shanxi province, and built up Beiyue anti-Japanese
base area. Military-Civil representative congress in Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei
base area was held in Fuping county Beiyue area, base area temporary
administrative committee was generated with election. In the meantime of
Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei anti-Japanese base area setup, post organization was
set up in winter of 1937, named initially as Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Area
Temporary Government and afterwards named as Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Border
Area Temporary Post.

Before the long march going north for the anti-Japanese in October 1934,
the Chinese Workers and Peasants Red Army set up 15 bases in the Yangtze
River on both sides. The transportation of bases was convenient and set
up mostly postal transportation agency with different names. According
to existing historical data and matter, 6 bases were distributed on
Jiangxi, Fujian, Zhejiang, Hunan, Hubei provinces and Central Soviet
Area were successively issued stamps, i.e. (1)Southwest Jiangxi,(2)West
Fujian,(3)Hunan-Jiangxi,(4)Jiangxi,(5)Northeast Fujian,(6)West
Hunan-Hubei,(7)Central Soviet Area,(8)Shaanxi Soviet Area. There were
eight revolution bases issued stamps.

  Between December, 1937 and January, 1938, Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei border
area temporary post issued first set stamp in north China liberated area
White Half Sun Issue stamp, 1 fen par value (Blue) and 5 fen (Blue and
black), printed in mimeograph way, imperforation. Only five pieces of 5
fen stamp have been known. (Fig.2-1)

苏区邮票版别共有三种

  (图2-1)

There are three kinds of prints of Soviet Area stamps.

  2.第一版全白日图邮票

(1)中央版。中华苏维埃邮政发行,邮票上印苏维埃邮政。

  2. The First Print While Full Sun Issue

(1) Central Print

  1938年1月,晋察冀边区临时行政委员会成立后,晋冀察边区临时邮政随之成立,2月发行第一版全白日图邮票(图2-2),全套2枚:1分(暗紫色)、2分(红棕色),石板印于有条纹报纸,图幅21.524mm,币值为法币,无齿孔。

Issued by Central Soviet Area with inscription of Soviet Area Posts

  图2-3所示实寄封原为中华邮政特制印简由河北乐城寄往平山县销有河北乐城村镇信差戳,后又加贴全白图1分5枚销河北郭苏镇1939年4月29日戳二次使用,为目前仅见,极为珍罕。

(2)地方版。由上1-6根据地发行,邮票上铭文有赤色二字(只有赣东北的江西花卉图邮票无赤色二字)。

  After Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Area Temporary Administrative Committee
set up in Jan.1938, Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Area Temporary Post was set up
thereupon, the first print White Full Sun stamp was issued in February
(Fig. 2-2), including 2 stamps: 1 fen denomination (dark purple) and 2
fen denomination (red brown), stone plate was printed on newspaper with
stripes, with size 21.524mm, currency value: legal tender,
imperforation.

(2) Local Print

  As the cover showed in Fig. 2-3, it was initially specific letter
sheet of Chinese Post Service mailed from Lecheng Hebei province to
Pinshang county stamped with Hebei Lecheng postmark, afterwards 5 pieces
of 1 fen stamps were pasted, second postmark by Guosu town Hebei
province on April 29th 1939. Only one has been found, extremely rarity.

Issued by the above 1 to 6 bases, with the inscription of Red Posts
(except Jiangxi Flower Issue)

  (图2-2) (图2-3)

(3)仿中央版。江西莲花县誊写版油印邮票两种。1分主图为地球,3分图案正中有一五角星,二者上方均横列苏维埃邮政,闽浙赣省邮政管理局。

  3.抗战军人纪念邮票第一套解放区纪念邮票

(3) Imitate Central Print

  3. Soldier of War Against Japanese Aggression – The first set of
commemorative stamp of Chinas liberated areas

There are two kinds of stamps sprinted by stencil in mimeograph. The
design of 1 fen denomination was globe, the central of design of 3 fen
denomination was a five-star, which top of both design arranged in
horizontal line the inscription of Soviet Posts and
Fujian-Zhejiang-Jiangxi Province Postal Administration.

  1938年9月,晋察冀边区临时邮政,为优待抗日战时通信,特发行一种不注明面值的大型纪念邮票(图2-4),由边区政府免费发给抗战军人使用。邮票图案为抗战军人持枪跑步的前进图,图幅34.2528.25mm,无齿孔。石版印于白色洋纸上,大红色。此票虽不印面值,但在军人肩荷的子弹带上,暗藏有一个阿拉伯文的5字。

苏维埃时期,在8个革命根据地发行邮票17套,40余种。

  In September 1938, Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Border Area Temporary Post
was set up, for providing priority to military post in anti-Japanese
time, a commemorative stamp without denomination was issued (Fig.2-4),
border area government distributed the stamp to anti-Japanese soldiers
for free use. Pattern in stamp showed anti-Japanese soldiers holding the
gun and marching forward, with size 34.2528.25mm, imperforation. Stone
plate was imprinted on white paper, full red color. No denomination on
this stamp but figure5was hidden on the bullet bag the soldier held.

In soviet posts period, total 17 sets of more than 40 stamps were issued
by 8 revolution bases.

  该邮票的图案是先由高晋材绘制一个卧姿军人的草图,未被采用,又由张述改画了现在的图案。此票印制于山西五台县境内的射虎川,以石印印制。

(一)赤色邮政

  1938年秋,晋察冀边区行政委员会同意撤销边区临时邮政,由中华邮政接办边区邮政,12月,晋察冀边区临时邮政所发行的邮票停用,停用后的邮票全部交到设在西安的中华邮政第三军邮视察段,后来转送到重庆中华邮政总局。

Chinese Red Posts

  由于抗战军人纪念邮票刚刚开始发行,便赶上中华邮政接办,为此绝大多数邮票未来得及出售使用,目前所见未使用的新票较多,旧票较少,实寄封更少。

1.赤色邮政龙头邮票实寄封

  The pattern of the stamp initially from Gao Jincai who created the
draft showing a soldier with prone position, but this was not adopted,
current pattern was created by Zhang Shu. This stamp was printed by
stone plate in Shehuchuan in Wutai county Shanxi province.

  1. The Cover with First Stamp of Chinese Red Posts

  In autumn of 1938, Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei Border Area Temporary
Committee agreed to repeal area temporary post, succeeded by Chinese
Post Service and created area post, the stamps issued by temporary post
were ceased in December, stamps after ceasing were submitted to third
military post of Chinese Post Service which set up in Xian, afterwards
transferred to General Post Office of Chinese Post Service in Chongqing.

赣西南赤色邮政邮票是最早发行的解放区邮票。1930年10月,赣西南赤色邮政总局发行邮票,图案为8字形花框,其内直列赣西南赤色邮政七字,两上角为面值数位。石板印于薄白纸,无齿孔。目前未见新票存世,但有15枚贴该邮票的实寄封存世。这15件实寄封的存世,主要是当年在通过国统区时被国民党扣查下来而保存至今的。在江西邮务管理局档案中记载了这15个封扣查的全过程,1930年8月8日,赣州市邮局局长密报,有部分本省兴国等地苏维埃政府发出邮件,封皮上贴有红军私造邮票信件,同一时间,于都、吉安邮局也发现贴用红军自制之赤色邮票的信件。

  Due to the commemorative stamp was just issued shortly and border
area temporary post just succeeded by Chinese Post Service, large
majority stamps were not sold and used, the unused stamps have been seen
more than used ones, the covers with them few.

Stamps of Chinese Red Posts of Southwest Jiangxi were the earliest
liberated stamps. In October 1930, Red Postal Administration of
Southwest Jiangxi issued stamps, which the design was character pattern
frame in 8, with 7 Chinese characters of Red Posts of Southwest Jiangxi
arranged in vertical line, with the denomination on two top corners.
They were printed by stone plate on white thin paper, imperforated.
Unused stamps have not found, only 15 covers with this set of stamps
have found so far. These 15 covers could save up to now, the reason that
they were detained through the KMT-controlled area at that time. The
whole process detained 15 covers were recorded in the file of Postal
Service Administration of Jiangxi, which on August 8, 1930, director
general of Ganzhou post office received a tip-off that the Soviet
government of the part areas of Xingguo of this province sent some
letters with Stamps of Chinese Red Posts, at the same time some same
ones were found in Yudu and Jian post offices.

  (图2-4)

目前赣西南赤色邮政邮票区封中国邮票博物馆藏5件,李曙光藏1件,日本水原明窗藏4件,香港杨乃强藏2件,孙蒋涛藏1件(图1-1),另有2件日本古庄昭夫旧藏,已转入国内藏家手中,共15件,民间藏10件,国家5件,目前每件市值在三百万以上

  4.唐县临时邮政邮票

Now the 15 covers with stamps of Chinese Red Posts of Southwest Jiangxi
have known. There are 5 covers collected by the museum of Chinese
stamps, one cover collected by Li Shuguang, 4 covers collected by
Japanese Meiso Mizuhara, 2 covers collected by Hong Kong N.C. Yang, one
cover collected by Sun Jiangtao (Fig.1-1). Other 2 covers collected
original by Japanese Akio Furusho, now have collected by inland
philatelist. Every one value of RMB is more than three million yuan.

  4. Stamps of Tangxian Provisional Posts

(图1-1)

  1938年2月14日在抗日烽火中诞生的唐县临时邮政邮票,至今已经近80年了。唐县临时邮政设在当时县抗日民主政府所在地北店头村内贾文田家中。唐县临时邮政辟有通达县内各区和冀西各县的邮路,发行临时邮政邮票,实行邮资寄递,办理平信、挂号、印刷品、平快、明信片等邮政业务。1981年10月,日本著名集邮家水原明窗Meiso
Mizuhara先生在北京举办中国邮票藏品展览,曾展出珍贵的唐县临时邮政邮票和当时唐县使用的一些邮政单据。这些都说明唐县临时邮政有着比较完备的邮政规章和业务制度。唐县临时邮政邮票一套2枚,为壹分,伍分两种面值。由于战事物质条件的限制,这套邮票构图简单,且系木戳手工盖印,用纸与印制都极为粗糙。

(Fig.1-1)

  Stamps of Tangxian Provisional Posts were issued in anti-Japanese
time on February 14th 1938, nearly 80 years till today. Tangxian
Provisional Posts was set at home of Jia Wentian in Beidiantou village
where the county anti-Japanese democracy government was set up. Tangxian
Provisional Posts set up the postal routes leading to all districts in
the county and counties in West Hebei, issued provisional stamps and
delivery with post fee, services were provided such as ordinary,
register mails, printing matter, express mails and post cards etc. In
October 1981 the well know Japanese philatelist Mr. Meiso Mizuhara held
the China stamp collections exhibition in Beijing, the precious
Tangxcian Provisional Posts stamps and some post documents used in
Tangxian were showed. All those showed that Tangxian Provisional Posts
had build up complete postal regulations and business systems. Stamps of
Tangxian Provisional Posts include 2 stamps, 1 fen and 5 fen
denomination. As limited by poor material conditions during war time,
this set stamp has simple patterns, with wooden postmark and stamped by
hand, paper used and printing were very crude.

2.闽西赤色邮票

  1937年七七事变后,日军侵入我华北腹地,国民党军队弃地南逃,中华邮政员工溃散,邮政机构撤销。8月下旬,国共两党就红军改编和作战任务举行谈判,中共方面提出将晋、察、冀、绥四省交界地的涞源、五台、浑源、平山、唐县等31各县划为红军活动的地区。中共中央根据《抗日救国十大纲领》和与国民党达成的协议,将中国工农红军主力改编为国民革命军第八路军。次年1月10日,晋察冀边区军政民代表大会在阜平城内召开,1月15日大会通过宣言和通电,晋察冀边区临时行政委员会宣告成立。《宣言》明确指出,边区行政委员会的实际内容是贯彻抗日与真正的民主,是民族统一战线的政权形式,它包含着各党、各派、各阶层及各种民族分子,在行政体系上,也是中华民国的地方政府。边区军政民代表大会后,经阎锡山转呈国民政府行政院和军事委员会,1938年1月31日正式得到国民政府行政院和军事委员会的承认和批准,这标志着晋察冀边区抗日民主政权的建立和边区抗日民族统一战线的形成与确立。

  1. Stamps of West Fujian Red Posts

  After July 7th Incident in 1937, Japanese armies invaded to inner
North China, the KMT armies abandoned north China and escaped towards
south, stuff in Chinese Post Service were dismissed and post
organization was repealed. In the last ten-day of August, negotiation
was held between the CCP and the KMT for Red army adaption and military
task topics, Communist Party proposed to define Laiyuan, Wutai, Hunyuan,
Pingshan and Tanxian etc. in total 31 counties located on border area of
Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei-Sui 4 provinces as red armys areas. Based on
Anti-Japanese and country saving ten creeds and agreements achieved with
National Party, head of Communist Party adapted Chinese worker-peasant
red army to National revolution the Eighth Route Army.
Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei area military-political-civil representative
congress was held in Fuping city in January 1938, declarations were
generated and approved by congress on 15th January, Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei
Area Provisional Administration Committee was set up. Clearly defined in
the Declarations that, main tasks of area administration committee were
implementation of anti-Japanese and the real democracy, regime form of
National united front, it included all parties, groups, stratums and
nationalists, form political system, it was the regional government of
Republic of China. After the congress, via submitted by Yan Xishan to
National government administration and Military committee, be approved
by National government administration and Military committee on 31st
Jan. 1938, which stands for foundation of Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei area
anti-Japanese democracy regime and area anti-Japanese National united
front.

1929年春夏,毛泽东、朱德率红四军从湘赣边界(即井冈山地区)入闽,转战赣南、闽西,占领了永定、上杭、龙岩等县。以三县为中心,北连赣南,西接粤东,开辟了新区,并于1930年3月建立闽西苏维埃政府,后于1932年3月改为福建省苏维埃政府,成为苏维埃中央革命根据地的重要组成部分。

  被中共中央誉为敌后模范的抗日根据地及统一战线的模范区的晋察冀抗日根据地,是中国共产党在敌后创建的第一个抗日根据地。晋察冀边区行政委员会又是敌后抗日根据地中唯一得到国民政府行政院和军事委员会正式承认的边区政府。为适应战时军民通信的需要,1937年11月末开始筹建边区临时邮政,12月份发行半白日图邮票,次年1月边区临时行政委员会成立,2月边区临时邮政总局续又发行全百日图邮票,同时唐县临时邮政也于1938年初成立,并于2月14日发行临时邮政邮票。这些都是抗日战争时期我革命根据地最早发行的邮票。半白日图票、全白日图票与唐县临时邮政邮票,构图风格极为相似,或取白日徽一角,或用白日徽主图,尤其唐县临时邮政壹分票,主图为全白日和两个五角星,星日相映,这反映了当时国难当头、抗战初始、国共合作业已形成的历史背景。

Spring and summer of 1929, the fourth red army led by Mao Zedong and Zhu
De marched Fujian from Hunan-Jiangxi border area, fought South Jiangxi
and West Fujian, attacked and occupied Yongding, Shanghang, Longyan
counties. The three counties were as the fenre, joined South Jiangxi at
north, joined East Guangdong at west, opened up new liberated area,
built Soviet Government of West Fujian in March 1930, following was
changed into Soviet Government of Fujian Province, and became an
important part of Soviet Central Revolutionary Base Area.

  图2-5为唐县临时邮政邮票和当时唐县使用的邮政排单。

闽西交通总局,早在1930年的下半年即建立,并于10月发行了闽西赤色邮政邮票2种,邮票上印有赤色邮政字样,以苏维埃徽志为图案的邮票,图为倒背的镰锤。1931年1月,闽西交通总局又发行了一套镰锤正置的赤色邮花邮票。邮票平版石印于加厚毛边纸上。设计者为张庭竹,当地龙岩人,1927年毕业于上海新华艺术学校,1929年参加革命,还曾设计过钞票。邮票面值以铜元计值,单位为片。片是枚的闽西方言。

  Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei anti-Japanese base area which was praised by
Communist Party as model of anti-Japanese base and National united front
was the first anti-Japanese base in enemy rear areas.
Shanxi-Chahar-Hebei administration committee was the only one area
government which was admitted by national government administration and
military committee in all base areas. In order to fulfill demands of
military and civil communication in war time, border area provisional
post was set up in end of November 1937, Half White Sun stamp was issued
in December, area provisional administration committee was set up in
January following year, Full White Sun stamp was issued in February by
area provisional post, meanwhile Tangxian Provisional Posts was set up
in beginning 1938 and provisional stamps was issued on 14th February,
these were the earliest stamps issued in revolution base areas during
anti-Japanese war. Half White Sun stamp, Full White Sun stamp and
Tangxian Provisional Post stamp were with similar patterns, take part of
white sun badge or main part of white sun badge, especially for 1 fen
denomination stamp of Tangxian provisional stamp, main parts of pattern
included full white sun and two pentacles, which represents of the
history background that in beginning phase of anti-Japanese war, county
in deep danger, cooperation between Communist Party and National Party
was formed.

Communication Bureau of West Fujian was built on the second half of
1930, and released a set of 2 stamps of West Fujian Red Posts in
October, with the inscription of Red Posts. Stamps had soviet emblem as
main design, and hammer and sickle of soviet emblem was mirror image. In
January 1931, Communication Bureau of West Fujian released again a set
of 2 stamps with Red Stamps, and hammer and sickle of soviet emblem was
not mirror image. The stamps were printed by lithography on thicken
paper made from bamboo, designed by Zhang Tingzhu, which he was Longyan
local people, graduated from Shanghai Xinhua art school, participated in
revolution in 1929, designed money. The name of currency was copper
currency. Denomination unit was 片pian. 片pian was West Fujian dialect
of 枚piece.

  Fig. 2-5 shows stamps of Tangxian provisional posts and post arrange
list used in Tangxian that period.

邮票共三种,其面值数字写法均不一样:

  (图2-5)

There were 3 kinds of stamps that the denomination figure and style of
writing were different.

  (二)山东战邮

2片写作贰片。4片写作四片。4片写作肆片。方连价格120万(图1-2)。

  Shandong War-Time Posts

2 pian was written as 贰片, 4 pian was written as 四片 or 4 pian was
written as 肆片. The price of block of four is 1.2 million yuan so far
(Fig.1-2).

  5.总局之章邮票

福建省博物馆也藏有此票,系1931年由农民协会保存下来的。永安县农民张暖祥捐献出赤色邮花(94)大方连邮票,在国家博物馆收藏。

  5. Seal of D.G. of Posts Stamps

This set of stamps is collected yet in the Museum of Fujian Province,
which were saved by local peasant association since 1931. Block of 94 of
Red Stamps donated by Yongan county peasant Zhang Luanyang was collected
in the Country Museum.

  1942年2月7日,山东省战时邮务总局成立后,3月间请山东省战时工会文书科张剑、韩寓吾及王济让等人设计了山东战时邮政邮票。据张剑回忆:山东地图邮票是根据当时山东所辖地区的缩影设计的,地图周围抗日烽火光芒四射,标志着山东的抗日有着光明的前程;火炬图邮票,象征着山东人民在中国共产党的领导下,高举抗日救亡的革命火炬奋勇前进;战士冲锋图和骑兵图邮票,生动的表现了抗日战士持枪冲锋和骑兵战士跃马扬刀冲向敌人,英勇杀敌的英姿;时代车轮图的邮票,体现了抗日军民驾驭抗日历史车轮滚滚向前。

该邮票使用到1932年4月30日,苏维埃中央政府统一邮票、邮资标准为止。

  Shandong war-time post office was set up on February 7th 1942, the
post office invited Zhang Jian, Han Yuwu and Wang Jirang etc. from
amanuensis section of war-time labor union Shandong province to design
the Shandong war-time post stamp. As memory from Zhang Jian: the stamp
with pattern of Shandong map was designed based on epitomes from
Shandong domination areas, anti-Japanese balefire flashing round the
map, which stands for bright perspective of anti-Japanese in Shandong;
the stamp with pattern of Hand holding torch, stands for Shandong people
march forward full of courage holding the revolution torch of
anti-Japanese and country saving under leading by CCP; Soldier charging
stamp and Cavalry man stamp vividly represented anti-Japanese soldiers
holding submachine guns and cavalry soldiers rushing at enemies, heroism
was fully showed; Stamp with pattern of times wheel, represented
anti-Japanese soldiers and folk marching forward with steering
anti-Japanese historical wheels.

Until Soviet central government unified postage standard on April 30,
1932, this set of stamp were used.

  据《中国解放区邮票史》华东卷(上)介绍说:山东战时邮政加盖总局之章邮票共5枚,有山东地图(米红)1分;战士冲锋图(绿)2分;火炬图(蓝)5分;时代车轮图(浅黄)1角;骑兵图(深棕)5角。但是查遍《中国邮票全集》解放区卷和《中华人民共和国邮票图鉴》(解放区)(香港杨乃强编)均无此票,只《中国人民革命战争时期邮票目录》中有4枚,即1分、2分、5分及5角(本组邮票尚有1角一种。由此看来这枚邮票并未发行,仅在档案中有记录)。

(图1-2)

  图2-6列出的山东地图(米红)1分邮票存世仅6枚,火炬图(蓝)5分双连存世仅2件。

(Fig.1-2)

  As information from East China volume of Stamp history in China
liberated areas: Seal of D.G. of Posts Stamps from Shandong war-time
posts included 5 pieces, 1 fen denomination with pattern of Shandong map
(red); 2 fen denomination with pattern of Soldier charging (green); 5
fen denomination with pattern of Hand holding torch (blue); 10 fen
denomination with pattern of Man pushing large wheel(light yellow); 50
fen denomination with pattern of Cavalry man (dark brown). But this set
of stamps cannot be found in liberated area volume of China stamp
collections and Peoples Republic of China stamp picture collections
(liberated area, edited by Yang Naiqiang from Hongkong). Only in Stamp
catalog in Chinese people revolution war-time four pieces were found,
namely 1 fen, 2 fen, 5 fen and 50 fen denominations. Based on that, 10
fen denomination stamps did not issued and only recorded in archives.

3.湘赣边省赤色邮票

  Only six stamps of 1 fen denomination (red) with pattern of Shandong
map, and two stamps of 5 fen denomination (blue) with pattern of Hand
holding torch have been found. (Fig. 2-6 )

  1. Stamps of Hunan-Jiangxi Border Province Red Posts

  (图2-6)

1931年7月,中央决定建立湘赣省。当年10月8日,湘赣省委成立,继之省苏维埃政府亦成立,驻地在永新县。湘赣省又称湘赣边区、湘赣边省。

  6.第一版毛泽东像邮票

In July of 1931, the Soviet central government decided to set up the
Hunan-Jiangxi Province. On October 8, 1931, the Hunan-Jiangxi provincial
party committee was built up, following the Soviet Government was also
built and was located at Yongxin County. The Hunan-Jiangxi Province was
called as Hunan-Jiangxi Border Area.

  6. The First Print Mao Zedong Issue

湘赣边省中华赤色邮政总局,局址设在永新县(现为永新县乐川镇公安派出所驻地),于1931年9月15日前发行了名为湘赣省赤色邮票,计三种:1分、2分和8分(图1-3),图案均为五角星、镰刀、铁锤。用至1932年4月30日苏维埃中央政府统一苏区邮政为止,仅约半年时间。整套市值200万元。

  1943年春,山东抗战局势开始好转,共产党领导的八路军开始局部反击,同年3、4月间,毛泽东主席、朱德总司令对山东作了一系列重要指示,7月,罗荣恒同志着文号召学习毛泽东思想。《大众日报》发表题为学习毛泽东思想、组织群众大多数的社论。在党中央、毛泽东主席的正确领导下,山东抗日根据地一年来作战和生产都获可喜成绩,先后解放部分县城,抗日根据地达900多万人口,毛泽东主席的光辉形象和威望深入人心,为全党和全国军民所崇敬。

Chinese Red Postal Administration of Hunan-Jiangxi Border Province was
located at Yongxin County, and released 3 kinds of 1 fen, 2 fen, and 8
fen stamps (Fig.1-3) with the inscription of Hunan-Jiangxi Border
Province Red Stamp. Their design was five-star, hammer and sickle. Until
soviet area posts were unified by Soviet Central Government on April 30,
1932, they were used, only about half a year. The price of whole set of
stamp about is 2 million yuan so far.

  1944年3月,山东省战时邮政总局印制了山东战邮毛泽东像(一版)邮票3枚。其颜色、面值是:(蓝)5分、(绿)1角、(深棕)5角,由胶东战邮管理局委托胶东《大众报》社印刷厂铜版印刷。邮票为白报纸,图幅1627mm,全张20(45)枚,无齿孔,北海币。邮票下端书写山东战邮。

湘赣边省赤色邮票,曾一度被认为是苏区发行的第一套邮票。近年经考证,它发行于1931年9月以前,而不是1929年,晚于赣西南、闽西等根据地的邮票发行时间。

  发行毛泽东像邮票,表达了广大军民对伟大领袖的热爱。这是全国解放区发行的邮票上首次出现毛泽东肖像。

Red Stamps of Hunan-Jiangxi Border Province were once considered as the
first set of stamp issued by Soviet Area. In recent years of textual
research it was issued before September of 1931, but not 1929, posterior
to issuing time of stamp of Southwest Jiangxi and West Fujian.

  图2-7为山东战邮一版毛泽东像(蓝)5分全张票,以及使用实例。

(图1-3)

  War situation turned to getting better in Shandong in spring of
1943, the Eighth Route Army leading by Communist Party started to beat
back locally, in March and April this year, Chairman Mao Zedong and
commander-in-chief Zhu De gave series important instructions to
Shandong, in July comrade Luo Ronghuan wrote articles and called on to
learn Mao Zedong ideology. Folks daily issued leading article with theme
of learning Mao Zedong ideology and Unite majority of folks. Under
correct leading by Central Communist Party and Chairman Mao, huge
achievements were got on battle and foodstuff production in Shandong
anti-Japanese base area in the past year, some counties were liberated,
population more than 9 million in liberated base area, brilliant image
and prestige of Chairman Mao goes deeply in peoples heart, be esteemed
by whole Communist Party and people nationwide.

(Fig.1-3)

  In March 1944, Shandong War-time Postal Administration issued
Shandong war-time post stamps in total 3 pieces with pattern of portrait
of Mao Zedong (first print). The color and denominations are: 5 fen
(blue), 10 fen (green), 50 fen (dark brown), the stamps were authorized
by Jiaodong War-time Post Administration Bureau to Jiaodong the Public
Newspaper printing house, printed with copper plate. Stamps are white
newspaper, size 1627mm, in total 20 pieces per plate (4 x 5),
imperforation, Beihai currency. Shandong War-time Post marked on bottom
of stamps.

4.湘鄂西赤色邮票

  The issuing of stamps with pattern of portrait of Mao Zedong, which
expressed peoples love and respect to the great leader. This is the
first time that portrait of Mao Zedong appears on stamps in liberated
areas nationwide.

  1. Stamps of West Hunan-Hubei Red Posts

  Fig. 2-7 shows that the whole sheet of first print of 5 fen blue
stamps with Mao Zedong portrait issued by Shandong War-time Post, and
its usages.

1930年7月,贺龙、周逸群领导的红四军与红六军在湖北省公安县会师,组成红二军团,与洪湖根据地连成一片,成为湘鄂西根据地。建立了湘鄂西省委、省苏维埃政府。湘鄂西省赤色邮务总局亦于1930年秋成立,不久即发行邮票一枚,面值1角(图1-4),图案为地图,其中央有五角星、镰刀、锤子和旗帜,并印有湘鄂西省赤色邮务总局全称。

  (图2-7)

In July 1930, the Fourth Red Army led by He long and Sixth Red Army led
by Zhou Yiquan joined forces in Gongan Gounty of Hubei Province, formed
the Second Red Legion, and together with Honghu base as one, became West
Hunan-Hubei Revolutionary Base. Provincial Party Committee and Soviet
Government of West Hunan-Hubei were built. Red Postal Administration of
West Hunan-Hubei Province was set up in the autumn of 1930, following
issued a stamp of denomination 1 jiao(Fig. 1-4). The design of stamp was
map, with five-star, hammer, sickle and flag in central, and printed
with the inscription of Red Postal Administration of West Hunan-Hubei
Province.

  7.牛耕、掷弹图邮票

目前见到的此种邮票均为新票,且多为单枚,未见信销票和实寄封。

  7. Ploughing and Throwing Grenade Issue

Now only unused stamps and mostly single one have been seen, not found
used stamps and covers.

  1944年,由于几年来日寇频繁扫荡,敌伪顽的经济封锁,山东抗日根据地面临许多困难。根据党中央发展生产、保证供给的指示和号召,全体军民自己动手,丰衣足食,发展生产,克服困难。

(图1-4)

  1944年11月,山东省战时邮务总局印制发行山东战邮耕牛图、掷弹图邮票各1枚。耕牛图邮票绿色1角,掷弹图邮票橘黄色1元。图幅2120和2321mm,无齿孔,北海币,平版,白报纸。邮票右边书写山东战邮,左边书写面值。这两枚邮票反映了抗日军民一面战斗,一面生产、克服困难的战斗历史。

(Fig.1-4)

  图2-8为该套邮票不同刷色,以及1元使用实例。

(二)苏维埃邮政

  In 1944, due to Japanese armys frequent mop-up in past several years
and economic blockade by puppetry, lots difficulties had to be faced by
Shandong anti-Japanese base area. According to instructions from Central
Communist Party enhance production and ensure providing, the people
overcome difficulties and evdently enhanced production, closing and
foodstuff were well ensured.

Chinese Soviet Posts

  In November of 1944, Shandong War-time Postal Administration issued
Shandong war-time post ploughing and throwing grenade stamps, 1 piece
for each. Ploughing stamp with 10 fen denomination and green color,
throwing grenade stamp with 1 yuan denomination and orange color. With
size 2120 and 2321mm, imperforation, Beihai currency, lithographic
plate,while newspaper. Shandong War-time Posts was written on right
side of stamp and denomination marked on left side. The 2 pieces stamps
represented the struggle history of anti-Japanese people keep fighting
while keep production and difficulty overcoming.

5.苏维埃邮票

  Fig. 2-8 shows different printing colors of this set stamp, and
cover with 1 yuan denomination stamp.

  1. Soviet Stamps

  (图2-8)

在国民党军重重围剿下,1931年11月7日,中华苏维埃共和国临时中央政府在江西瑞金成立。1932年5月1日,建立了中华苏维埃共和国中央邮政总局,制定颁布了邮政暂行章程和一系列规章制度,健全了邮政组织机构和邮路干线,统一了苏区邮政资费标准,发行了铭记为苏维埃邮政的邮票。接着,江西、福建、闽赣、粤赣、湘赣、闽浙赣等苏区先后成立了邮政管理局,各县和交通要道设邮局,先后开办了普通信函、快信、汇兑、报纸、寄递等多种业务。

  8.胶东区加盖胶东暂作改值邮票

Under the encirclement and suppression of the Kuomintang army, on
November 7, 1931 the Temporary Central Government of Chinese Soviet
Republic was built in Ruijin of Jiangxi. On May 1, 1932, Central Postal
Administration of Chinese Soviet Republic was set up. The provisional
postal service constitution, and many rules and regulations were
formulated and promulgated, postal institutional framework and postal
routes were perfect, postal charges of soviet areas were unified, and
stamps with the inscription of Chinese Soviet Posts were issued.
Following postal administrations of Jiangxi, Fujian, Fujian-Jiangxi,
Guangdong-Jiangxi, Hunan-Jiangxi and Fujian-Zhejiang-Jiangxi soviet
areas were successively built, many post offices of counties and traffic
thoroughfares were set up, multiple postal operation of ordinary
letters, express, remittance, newspaper, delivery and so on were opened
one after another.

  8. Stamps Overprinted with Jiaodong Temporarily Used for and
Surcharge of Jiaodong Area

从1931年底到1934年10月红军开始长征时止,在这近三年的时间里,曾发行苏维埃邮政邮票10多种。

  1944年5-8月,胶东战时邮务管理局进行一次邮资调整。由于新的邮票尚未印出,调资后所需面值邮票缺乏,于是将山东战时邮务总局发行的山东省战时邮政邮票加字改值6枚,以应急需。

From the end of 1931 to October 1934, before beginning of red army the
long march, nearly three years, more than 10 kinds of stamps with the
inscription of Soviet Posts were issued.

  图2-9为贴加盖胶东暂作改值邮票5分(紫)邮票1枚印刷品裸寄邮件,销莱阳1944年9月8日战时邮戳,十分罕见,存世不超过3件。