澳门微尼斯人手机版东方仕女图式的当代转换――评江衡画作_艺术家资讯_雅昌新闻

人物画、肖像画历来是视觉艺术景观中最为引人瞩目的部分,人类通过身体认识世界,作为视觉对象和视觉表象的身体是人类关照自身进而关照世界的途径和方式,因此一部艺术史甚至可以浓缩为人物形象史,或者说是身体的历史。

美术理论家贡布里希有一句名言:绘画是一种活动,所以艺术家的倾向是看他要画的东西,而不是画他看到的东西。在今天这个欲望喷涌和体验翻新的消费文化时代,贡布里希所揭示的原理是否还适用呢?如果你去琢磨江衡的美女系列作品,也许会有所发现。在他的图像学里,一个独特的图像形态美女跃然画面。更有趣的是,这些长相各异的美女脸上,一个突出的图像符号一以贯之:大得不合比例的眼睛。那一对又一对大眼睛正凝视着什么?当你作为观者去凝视这一凝视时,又会有何种发现?

澳门微尼斯人手机版,Figure paintings and portraitures have always been the most attractive
elements in the visual arts, people learn about the world through the
body. Body as a visual object and visual representation is an approach
in which people reflect upon themselves and the world at large,
therefore the history of art can often be condensed to the history of
portraits, or history of the body.

The art theorist Gombrich has a famous saying that, Painting is an
activity, so the artists tendency depends on what he wants to paint,
rather than painting what he perceives. In todays overwhelming flux of
desire and the ever-renewing experience of consumption culture, is
Gombrichs principle still applicable? If one reflects upon Jiang Hengs
series of femme fatale, perhaps one would find the unique image of the
femme fatale. What is more interesting is, among the varying faces of
these beautiful women, one symbol transgresses them is their
disproportionate eyes. What are those big eyes staring at? To stare into
such gaze as an observer, what would you discover?

其中女性形象更是时代视觉的焦点,作为具有鲜明象征意义的符号,在单纯的生理意义之外,女性被不断赋予各种社会的、文化的涵义,因此不管是中国还是西方,一部女性视觉形象史既是艺术形象变迁史,也是美学意识的流变史,当然还是社会形象嬗变史,映照出社会及文化的沧海桑田。

我以为,大眼睛作为一个标志性的图像符号,或许就是画家美女系列作品要画的东西!

Amongst which, the female figure becomes the visual focus of any given
time. With distinctive symbolic meaning, besides its physiological
meaning, females have been assigned to various social and cultural
significances. Whether in the West or in China, a visual history of
female portraits is not only an developmental history of art, but also
the transformation of aesthetic ideology. Of course, it is also the
history of social evolution, reflecting the diversity of a given society
and culture.

I believe, the big eyes are a remarkable symbol is perhaps what the
artist want to paint in his femme fatale series.

而在视觉艺术领域,作为视觉符号和语言的艺术图式具有至关重要的意义,它既传达了视觉效果和审美心理,同时也阐释了其文化意义、传播了相关文化语境,可以说,确立图式和个性化、风格化具有同构作用。对每一个艺术家而言,艺术图式的自我确立可谓其最高追求。女性形象图式的探索是人物画的重要命题,众多艺术家们为此而皓首穷经。绵延千年的中国仕女画佳作迭出,为人类文化贡献了无数精华和传奇,《洛神赋图》、《捣练图》、《簪花仕女图》等至今让当代人动容折腰。从汉朝帛画开始,仕女图式随着时代、文化的变迁而变化:魏晋神仙贤妇的高古飘逸,唐代贵族的丰腴闲适,宋元平民的细腻丰富,直到明清时代,文化的衰弱表征为女性形象的柔弱、忧郁和纤瘦。因此到了19世纪末20世纪初,所谓传统仕女画的内涵相对固定,宣扬女性倚风娇无力的阴柔、赢弱、幽郁之美,追求柔和、恬静、含蓄的品格,所以削肩、丹凤眼、柳叶眉、瓜子脸、樱桃小口的美人成为传统仕女形象的标准图式。

我们都知道,消费社会是一个高度视觉化的社会,看不仅是消费体验的通道,更是生存的在场证明。文化与视觉的关系,在当下实现了前所未有的合谋。好酒不怕巷子深的时代一去不复返了,只有那些看得见并吸引眼球的东西,才有难以想象的魔力。法国思想家德波所谓景观社会的预言已成现实。美女的大眼睛在看我们的同时邀请我们去看。于是,看本身及其艺术表现遂成为江衡绘画的基本主题。

In the field of visual arts, the motif as visual symbols and language
plays a pivotal role. It does not only achieve certain visual effects
and satisfy aesthetic psychology, at the same time it explains the
cultural significance and relevant cultural context entailed. In other
words, to establish a motif and individual and stylistic elements are
mutually effective. For each artist, to establish an artistic motif is
considered his ultimate pursuit. The exploration of the female figure
has been an important theme in portraiture. Many artists study the
subject throughout their lives. The thousands of years of Chinese
paintings on courtesan ladies have contributed a plethora of essence and
legends to Chinese art. The Nymph of Luo River, Ladies Preparing Newly
Woven Silk, Cout Ladies Wearing Flower Headdresses, are works still
mesmerize the contemporaries. Since paintings on silk of the Han
dynasty, paintings on courtesans have transformed with time and cultural
transformation from being fluid and elegant wise women of the Wei and
Jin dynasty, to the plumb nobles of the Tang dynasty, to the delicate
and rich commoners of the Song and Yuan dynasty, to representation of
cultural downfall with women portrayed as weak, melancholy and fragile.
Therefore, at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th
century, the meaning of so-called traditional paintings on court ladies
is relatively fixed, it exemplifies the feminine qualities of fragile
beauty as gentle and exquisite, feeble, melancholic, soft, tranquil, and
introverted. Therefore, the traditional courtesans are often portrayed
with sloping shoulders, small eyes, thin eyebrows, slim faces, and tiny
mouths.

As we know, the consumption society is a highly visual society, viewing
is not only a way in which to experience consumption but a proof of
existence. The relationship between culture and visual culture have
reached unprecedented conspiracy in the present. The time of discovering
a good drink in the deep alley has been long gone, what is before us are
those in front of our eyes, emitting unimaginable power. The French
philosopher Guy Debords so-called Social Landscape has became a reality.
The femme fatales eyes while gazing at us invite us to stare back.
Therefore, the act of viewing and its artistic representation became the
basic top of Jiang Hengs paintings.

在20世纪的历史进程和视觉文本中,女性形象成了具有重大象征和突破意义的视觉符号,它与个性解放、思想解放、女性解放等主题紧密相联,女性对自由和独立的呼唤呐喊成为时代最响亮最迫切的声音之一,女性图式随之发生重大转变。建国后的革命美术中,根正苗红、吃苦耐劳的铁姑娘是新时代美好女性的代言人,在文革后的伤痕美术、乡土现实主义、新古典主义等美术潮流中,女性大多被寄予了个性化、人性化的理想品格,何家英、王沂东、靳尚谊、杨飞云、陈逸飞等人的画里,女性形象美好而温润。

毫无疑问,画家最关注看,但并非每个画家都自觉地把看本身作为表现对象。在江衡的诸多系列画中,反复出现的美女构成了一个贯穿性的符号原型,姑且称之美女系列。仔细审视这些美女,不免会被那些关于看的赤裸真理所震撼。我注意到,在江衡的美女系列作品中,多少有点像瓷娃娃的各式美女,必定个个眼睛大得眩惑恐怖。这些超出了正常比例的大眼睛,把视觉这个消费社会的最要紧的感知体验方式,用一种极端夸张的方式彰显出来。不仅如此,透过那形色各异的眼神和视线,花花世界的种种视觉诱惑暗中传递出来。注意一下黑眼球的高光点处理,从模糊的圆形斑点(如《散落的物品36》),到类似惊叹号的反射(如《散落的物品54》),再到仿佛是窗框的映射(如《美丽的花儿2》),这不同的表达方式折射出眼睛对大千世界的渴望,映射出视线对生活万般神奇的流连。我们不禁为那些夸张的眼睛所惊异,为那些企盼的眼神所感召,为那些欲望化的眼光所迷魅。或许有理由说,美女之瞥不啻是一个关于消费社会的视觉文化寓言。

Throughout the historical development and visual archives of the 20th
century, the female figure becomes the most symbolic and penetrating
visual emblem. It is closely tied to the liberation of individualism,
emancipation of conservative mentalities, and the emancipation of women.
The womens scream for freedom and independence thus became the loudest
sound of this era. Subsequently, the motif of women underwent
significant transformation. The revolutionary art after the founding of
the Peoples republic, the righteous, hardworking iron-women were
representatives of the new era, in the scar art, folk realist art and
new classical art after the Cultural Revolution, most women were
portrayed with individualism, personal ideals and qualities. Among the
paintings by He Jiaying, Wang Yidong, Jin Shangyi, Yang Feiyun, Chen
Yifei and others, the female image is portrayed idyllically and moist.

Undoubtedly, the painter is most interested in viewing, yet now all
painters consciously treat viewing as the object of representation. In
Jiang Hengs numerous series, the reoccurring image of the femme fatale
became the transgressing emblem, thus entitled the Femme Fatale Series.
Examining these women in detail, we cannot help to be shocked by the
naked truth about viewing. I noticed that Jiang Hengs femme fatale
series are somewhat akin to the ceramic dolls, because their eyes are
nevertheless scarily large. These usual proportions have displayed the
most crucial sensation for this consumption society with the most
exaggerated manner. Moreover, behind the plethora of gazes and stares,
myriads of visual enticements sip out. Noted is the highlight of on the
dark eyes, from the ambiguous round dot (in Scattered Object 36) to the
reflection similar to an exclamation mark (in Scattered Object 54), or
the seemingly reflection of the display window (Beautiful Flower 2).
These ways of expression reflect the eyes desire to the wonders of this
world, and the lingering visions on the enigmas of life. We cannot help
but to feel appalled by those exaggerated eyes, drawn to those longing
eyes, and attracted to the gazes of desire. Perhaps there is reason of
these womens glance is a visual culture fable of the consumption
society.

90年代以来消费文化浩浩荡荡带来了新的价值新的理念,物体系成为新文化的温床、母体、制约者和规训者,作为消费文化观察者、叙述者、表现者的女性形象必然发生重大转折和变更。敏感的视觉艺术家们如何描绘我们时代的女性形象?或者说当代仕女图式应该如何绘制?为时代女性画像,创建具备当代性的仕女图式,是艺术面临的重大挑战,也是艺术家的重要机遇。

图一,马格利特《虚假的镜子》(1928)

Since the 1990s, consumer culture has brought forth new values and new
ideals. The materialistic system became the breading ground, nourishing
body, restriction and regulator for the new culture. The female figure
as the observer, narrator, player of the consumer culture, certainly
would undergo drastic changes. How would the sensible visual artist
portray the female figure of our time? In other words, how would one
paint the image of the contemporary courtesan? To paint the portrait of
the contemporary women in the style of courtesan women, yet without
losing a sense of time, became the biggest challenge for artists, at the
same time, it was also an important opportunity.

图二,江衡《蝴蝶飞飞》(2007)

在众多风格迥异的创作中,艺术家江衡绘制了一份出人意表的视觉答卷。从90年代开始,江衡就孜孜不倦埋首于当代美女的创作,《美女鱼》系列、《满天星》系列、《散落的物品》系列、《消费时代的景观》系列,一直到2008年的《花蝴蝶》、《蝴蝶飞飞》系列,美人,是画面永恒的主角。可以说,他是当代美人图的忠实的探索者、创作者。

这里,我想通过参照比较两幅画来比较,从中也许我们可以解读出江衡大眼美女图的复杂意味。一幅可以比较的是比利时超现实主义画家马格利特的《虚假的镜子》(图一)。在这幅画中,马格利特借助眼球的镜面反射,清晰再现出一幅蓝天白云的真实景象。作为超现实主义画家,这幅画也许反映了记忆中的梦幻之景,但却是以极其真实的自然景象来表现,颇有些假作真来真亦假的意趣。反观江衡作品,比如《蝴蝶飞飞》(图二),美女的眼神充满了好奇,她在凝视这个世界。不仅用自己的眼睛,而且借助放大镜来审视这个世界,要把这个世界看个清楚。假如说马格利特超现实主义的眼光折射出的真实景观是以反语方式的梦幻来表达的话,那么,在江衡的美女那里,眼光却是高度梦幻地真实表达。换言之,美女作为一种审视这个充满了物欲的消费世界象征符号,逼真地彰显出今天这个视觉文化时代的真谛:用眼睛去大量并消费这个世界。这里,眼睛被高度象征化和夸张化了。的确,只要对当下日常生活稍加打量就会发现,一切诱惑人的东西首先呈现为景观(spectacle)。整个世界都已转化为形象,德波说得好:景观是由以下事实所导致的,即现代人完全成了观者。这就导致了景观在现代社会中的统治和暴力。当人们沉溺于日常生活审美化的讨论时,一个重要的事实在江衡的作品中被揭示出来了,那就是今天的文化是一种体验性的文化。体验的首要方式就是视觉,眼睛不仅打量着一切,恰如画面上那美女高度象征性的眼神一样,更重要的是,人们还要借助各种技术手段在视觉上消费这一文化,放大镜不过是各种数字技术、传播技术、视觉技术和消费技术的表征符号而已。于是,看这个原本最常见的行为,以某种陌生化的效果呈现出来,它昭示出在消费时代的视觉文化转向中,视觉欲望及其快感已升格为存在的确证方式我看故我在。马格利特式的梦幻镜像已经远去,美女本身作为视觉对象的大眼凝视,既是一个被表现的图像符号,又是一个吁请观众进入视觉消费并享用视觉盛宴的邀请。不但用肉眼去体验,更要用放大镜一类的技术手段去放大体验。

Among different styles, the artist Jiang Heng presents a visual answer
much to our surprises. Since the 1990s, Jiang Heng has been painting the
femme fatale of the present, Femme Fatale-Fish, Starry Night, Scattered
Objects, Landscape of the Consumption Era, until the Butterfly,
Fluttering Butterfly series of 2008, beautiful women has been the main
character throughout. We can say, Hes an avid explorer and creator of
contemporary paintings of beauty.

Here, I would like to make a comparison by referring to two paintings,
from which we will perhaps decipher the complex meaning of Jiang Hengs
images of femme fatale. One of the paintings is the Belgian surrealist
painter Rene Magrittes The False Mirror (Image I), in this painting,
Magritte used the reflection of the eye to represent the realistic image
of white clouds in the blue sky. As as surrealist painter, perhaps this
painting reveals the dreamlike view found in ones memory, yet are
presented in its actual natural form, which can seem to have the
somewhat tromp loeil effect. Looking back into Jiang Hengs paintings,
Fluttering Butterfly (Image II), the gaze in his femme fatales is filled
with curiosity, shes staring into this world. Not only with her won
eyes, but uses a magnifying glasses to examine this world, because she
wants to see the world with clarity. If Magrittes surrealist gaze
reflect the actual view is a sarcastic approach to express imagination,
then the gazes of Jiang Hengs femme fatale must be the true expression
of utter imagination. In other words, femme fatale as a symbol of
material desire of the consumption world, has vividly revealed the truth
of todays visual culture: using ones eyes to wager and consume this
society. Here, the eyes are highly exaggerated and symbolized. Indeed,
with slightest attention to our everyday life, one would notice anything
that is attractive is first shown as a spectacle. The entire world has
been transformed to images, as Debord stated, the spectacle is caused by
facts, in other words, people today are observers. This let to the
spectacles monopoly and violence in contemporary society. As people are
absorbed in the discussion of the everyday aesthetics, an important fact
is revealed in Jiang Hengs work, that is, todays culture is an
experiential culture. And the primary approach to experience is seeing,
the eyes not only approximate everything, just as the symbolic gaze of
these beautiful women, but most importantly, people need to appropriate
various techniques to consume such culture visually. The magnifying
glass is the representation of various digital technology, communication
devices, visual technology and consumption methods. Therefore, viewing,
the most common behavior is shown in a rather estranged effect, it
displays the visual desire and its gratification has been augmented to
ways in which to verify ones existence in the transformation of visual
culture of the consumption era I see therefore I am. Magrittes dreamlike
mirror is behind us, the beautiful women as the visual object, stares
with their big eyes, are visual emblem represented, as well as the
invitation to the viewers to enjoy such visual feast. Not only can one
experience with their naked eyes, but also with the assistance of the
magnifying glass to enlarge such experience.

但是,江衡的美人却完全打破了我们的视觉惯式和心理预期:浮华艳丽的背景上,大眼睛小嘴巴的标准美女们鲜艳欲滴,丰满的身躯和水草般丰茂的头发呈现出逼人的青春和美艳。与美人相伴的是鱼、花朵、蝴蝶这些传统仕女图中经常出现的意象,所以单单从题材上看,跟传统仕女图并无分别。在创作于2003年的《消费时代的景观》之10中,甚至出现了非常传统的水墨意境。

至此,我想说,画面上那些大得可怕却又异常真实的美女眼睛,成为一种当下体验之文化的象征。美女及其眼光的双重性质赤裸地呈现出来。作为观者,面对这幅画,我们其实是在看那美女看,凝视那美女的凝视。一方面,美女是作为我们的镜像而存在;另一方面,我们在凝视美女的凝视的同时,也成为美女凝视的镜像,此乃视觉文化的视线互文性的辩证法。说到这里,我们更深刻地理解了梅洛庞蒂的话:看正像一个十字路口一样,是所有方面交汇遇合之点。人们所见和使之被见的东西,在存在之物上的这种进动,就是看本身。

However, Jiang Hengs beautiful women have completely subverted our
visual habits and psychological expectations: under the glamorous
background, the standardized large eyes and small lips in women are
bright, their voluptuous bodies and the seaweed-like hair are vivid
beauties of youth. Accompanying the beauties are fish, flower,
butterfly, images that often appear in traditional courtesan paintings.
Therefore, thematically speaking, they are not much different from its
traditional counterparts. In Landscape of Consumption Era X from 2003,
one could even notice the realm attained in traditional ink painting.

Therefore, I would like to comment that the scarily large yet real eyes
have became the cultural emblem to experience current culture. The
dichotomous quality of the femme fatale and their gazes are presented
literally. As a viewer, confronted with this painting, we are in fact
viewing the gaze of this beauty and stare into her stare. On the one
hand, these beautiful women exist as the image in the mirror; on the
other hand, while we stare into their stares weve became the image in
the mirror of their gaze, this is the dialectics of visual culture. It
helps us to further understand Maurice Merleau-Pontys statement, Viewing
is like being at the crossroad, it is where all directions meet. What
people perceive and made seen, evolves above existence, is the act of
viewing.

但是,天壤之别的差异恰恰出现在美人的身上:江衡的美人们美则美矣,却是无法消受的美女,不仅不具备温香软玉的温暖质感,取而代之的倒是一股冰冷的、不可接近的机械的味道、物的味道。即使斜眼媚笑,美人们滚圆的玻璃珠子般的眼睛里射出的还是冷冰冰的光,她们的笑容节制而冰冷,仿佛不食人间烟火,与画面鲜艳的糖果色调形成极大的反差,一个冰冷一个火热。美人们虽然青春无敌,但不可触摸不能交谈,没有鲜活的生命气息,正如《蝴蝶飞飞》中的花蝴蝶,虽然鲜艳却缺乏活力缺少生命,只能成为标本。

接着,我们来比较另外一幅画,即美国波普的代表人物维塞尔曼的《伟大的美国裸女第59号》。我不知道江衡的美女系列是否受到美国波普艺术的这位代表人物的启发。但比较两人的系列是耐人寻味的。一系列显而易见的相似不必强调了,比如美女系列这种创意本身。我感兴趣是如下发现,在维塞尔曼的美国裸女系列画中,从来就不画眼睛,由此来突出地强调了美女的性感特征;而在江衡的美女系列中(如图三《蝴蝶飞飞17》),性感的艳俗仿佛被瓷娃娃式的玻璃效果间离了,但却凸现了美女的大眼睛及其盛满欲望的眼神。

Yet, the obvious distinction resides in these beauties: Jiang Hengs
femme fatales, although beautiful, are yet non-consumable, not only do
they lack the warm quality of tame fragrance and preciousness, instead
are replaced with the sense of unapproachable mechanical and material
flavor. Even their flirtatious smirk, and what transmits from their
round glassy eyes are still frigid stares, their smiles are reserved and
cold, as if they are unworldly, which contrasts with the bright candy
colors of these images. One is frigid, the other warm. Even though these
beautiful women are youthful, but they are unreachable and cant
communicate with, lacking any liveliness, just as the butterflies in
Fluttering Butterfly, although bright in color, but lacks life, which
can only be made into samples.

Then lets compare the other painting, the American Pop artist Tom
Wesslemanns The Great American Nude 59. I am uncertain whether Jiang
Hengs femme fatale series are influenced by this American Pop artist.
Although the comparison of these two artists can be mesmerizing. Without
mentioning the similarity of their series of works, in terms of their
creativity. What interests me is that Wasslemanns Nude series have never
painted the eyes onto the women, in order to emphasize the sexy
characteristics of women; whereas in Jiang Hengs femme fatale
(Fluttering Butterfly 17) the kitsch sexiness seem to be separated from
the glassy effect of the ceramic-like dolls, yet highlights the big eyes
and her desire filled gaze.

是的,江衡的美女正是我们时代的标本,物质时代的身体标本。当代文化对身体的强调达到前所未有的重视程度,身体与阶级、身体与权力、身体的意义和策略一直是关注焦点,但身体的肉体化和社会化的功能被统一于消费社会的物化和欲望化,因此观赏性、肉体性、细节性等视觉性特征得到前所未有的强化。

图三,江衡《蝴蝶飞飞17》(2008)

Precisely, Jiang Hengs femme fatales are samples of our time, the body
sample of a material era. The focus on the body in contemporary culture
has reached an unprecedented height, body and class, body and power, the
meaning of the body and strategy have always been the points of focus,
but the physicality of the body and its social implications have been
generalized as the materialized consumption society and our desire for
it. For this reason, the decorative, physical, and details of visual
characteristics are enforced.

图四,维塞尔曼《伟大的美国裸女59号》(1965)

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