作为中国消费时代象征的美女和由美女象征的中国消费时代 ——江衡的美女形象系列读解_艺术家资讯_雅昌新闻

一,符号美术的新象征方向

美术理论家贡布里希有一句名言:绘画是一种活动,所以艺术家的倾向是看他要画的东西,而不是画他看到的东西。在今天这个欲望喷涌和体验翻新的消费文化时代,贡布里希所揭示的原理是否还适用呢?如果你去琢磨江衡的美女系列作品,也许会有所发现。在他的图像学里,一个独特的图像形态美女跃然画面。更有趣的是,这些长相各异的美女脸上,一个突出的图像符号一以贯之:大得不合比例的眼睛。那一对又一对大眼睛正凝视着什么?当你作为观者去凝视这一凝视时,又会有何种发现?

江衡以一种独特的美女画,呈出了自己的个人风格。显出自己的个人风格是当代中国美术的一种出场方式。这一个人风格的当代方式,从张晓刚、王广义、岳敏君那里,形成了一种固定套路,包含了三大特征,一,以一种非现实的造型方式塑造形象,正因为非现实,而可以突显一种独特的个人标记;二,这一现实形象具有一望可知的象征性,正因为一望可知,容易为专家解说,为大众理解,获得最好的传播效果;三,这一个性形象具有配方式的复制性,配方突出直陈式语义,复制可以不断地巩固效果。不妨把这一艺术称为符号型艺术。张晓刚以其家庭照片形成了自己的家文化(呆滞之家)的个人符号,王广义以其大批判宣传画(配以消费符号)形成了自己的政治戏讽的个人符号,岳敏君以其丑面丑身(丑讽之人)形成了自己政治丑讽的个人符号。江衡以同一法则推出了自己的美女符号,与张、王、岳的面向过去与现在的关联不同,江衡的美女符号呈出的是一种现在与未来的关系,如果说,张、王、岳的艺术主要是一种文化/政治批判,那么,江衡的艺术则是一种社会/文化批判。如果说张、王、岳的艺术批判更多地是针着一种政治文化,那么,江衡的艺术批判更多地对准着当今的消费文化。从一种更宽广角度看,这两种方式对于中国社会转型的艺术表达,都可以进行多方面的理论读解,具有甚多的阐释空间。从美术史上讲,对当前中国消费文化的艺术呈现、艺术思考、艺术批判,是一个正在开始的方向,当这一方向在江衡作品中以美女符号呈现出来时,美术表达与文化内容的关系,得到了在美术上和在文化上的双重推进。

The art theorist Gombrich has a famous saying that, Painting is an
activity, so the artists tendency depends on what he wants to paint,
rather than painting what he perceives. In todays overwhelming flux of
desire and the ever-renewing experience of consumption culture, is
Gombrichs principle still applicable? If one reflects upon Jiang Hengs
series of femme fatale, perhaps one would find the unique image of the
femme fatale. What is more interesting is, among the varying faces of
these beautiful women, one symbol transgresses them is their
disproportionate eyes. What are those big eyes staring at? To stare into
such gaze as an observer, what would you discover?

I. New Direction for the Aesthetics of Symbolism

我以为,大眼睛作为一个标志性的图像符号,或许就是画家美女系列作品要画的东西!

Jiang Heng presents his individual style with the unique paintings of
femme fatales. To present ones individual style is the approach in which
contemporary Chinese art is revealed. Such individual style has became a
fixed model followed by artists like Zhang Xiaogang, Wang Guangyi, Yue
Minjun, encompassing three characteristics: one is to compose with
non-realistic forms, through which ones unique individual emblem is
revealed; two, the actual form has a comprehensible symbolism, and
because its comprehensible, it is easy for experts and the public to
understand, as a result to be well promulgated; three, such form has a
formulaic approach for reproduction, the concoction highlights the
narrative connotation , reproduction that reinforces its effect. Why
dont we call such art as symbolic art. Zhang Xiaogang formed his
personal symbol of family culture (the idle family) with family photos;
Wang Guangyi found his personal symbol of political satire with big
character posters (and symbols of consumption); Yue Minjun formed his
personal political criticism with vilified figures. Similarly, Jiang
Heng used the symbol of the femme fatale as his trademark, unlike Zhang
Xiaogang, Wang Guangyi and Yue Minjuns exploration of the past and
present, Jiang Hengs femme fatale presents the relationship between the
present and the future. If the art of the Zhang Xiaogang, Wang Guangyi
and Yue Minjun is a type of art/political criticism, then Jiang Hengs
art is a criticism of culture and society. If the former focuses on
political culture, then Jiang Hengs work focuses on todays consumption
culture. From a broader perspective, both these approaches provide
multiple theoretical interpretations on Chinas social transition, all of
which offer rooms for interpretation. Art historically, it is the
beginning of artistic representation, reflection, and criticism on the
current consumer culture in China. Jiang Hengs symbols of femme fatale
push forward artistic cultural representation in terms of artistic
expression and cultural content.

I believe, the big eyes are a remarkable symbol is perhaps what the
artist want to paint in his femme fatale series.

二,作品系列的内在结构

我们都知道,消费社会是一个高度视觉化的社会,看不仅是消费体验的通道,更是生存的在场证明。文化与视觉的关系,在当下实现了前所未有的合谋。好酒不怕巷子深的时代一去不复返了,只有那些看得见并吸引眼球的东西,才有难以想象的魔力。法国思想家德波所谓景观社会的预言已成现实。美女的大眼睛在看我们的同时邀请我们去看。于是,看本身及其艺术表现遂成为江衡绘画的基本主题。

江衡塑造的美女画,是消费时代的艺术象征。它对自己作品一个系列的命名《消费时代的景观》,主体形象是美女与餐具,正好突出了人类的两种基本的欲望:色与食。这里且不对这一系列里的内含和象征进行分析,而要强调讲其从命名上突出了美女与消费社会的联系。由此扩展看去,江衡不断推出的以美女为主题的作品系列:《美女》系列、《美女鱼》系列、《花季》系列、《蓝色》系列、《花蝴蝶》系列、《散落的物品》系列、《满天星》系列都是对消费社会的一种呈现,都是通过美女来言说当今的消费社会。而作品命名中的主词:美女、鱼、蝴蝶、花季、蓝色、物品都具有一种紧密的意义关联,这一关联共汇成一个意义之网,使美女的意义在集中/扩散/弥漫/深化当这一组组系列作品的对当今社会的消费与美女的紧密关联有了一种强调,有了一种理解,江衡的另外一些表面上看起来与美女没有关联的系列作品,《花布》系列、《流亡系列》、《玩物猪》系列也都以这种和那种方式与美女系列关联了起来:《花布》系列中的基本元素,正是美女系列中的基本元素,可以说是一种有美女在画面外的系列。《流亡》系列中的箭,是美女系列中本有的元素,是美女系列中的明喻;《流亡》系列中的虎,虽是美女系列中没有的元素,却是美女系列中美女本身所包含的暗喻。由此可知,《流亡》系列就是美女系列。《玩物猪》系列从形象、环境、动作、用词,都暗喻着消费时代的美女。由此呈现,《玩物猪》系列就是美女系列中国社会对女性的称谓,共和国前期称同志,改革开放后改为小姐、女士,现在公共场合出现得越来越多的词是美女。如何理解美女,构成了当代文化研究的一个课题,还不是仅仅是文化研究的课题。

As we know, the consumption society is a highly visual society, viewing
is not only a way in which to experience consumption but a proof of
existence. The relationship between culture and visual culture have
reached unprecedented conspiracy in the present. The time of discovering
a good drink in the deep alley has been long gone, what is before us are
those in front of our eyes, emitting unimaginable power. The French
philosopher Guy Debords so-called Social Landscape has became a reality.
The femme fatales eyes while gazing at us invite us to stare back.
Therefore, the act of viewing and its artistic representation became the
basic top of Jiang Hengs paintings.

II. Internal Structure within the Artworks

毫无疑问,画家最关注看,但并非每个画家都自觉地把看本身作为表现对象。在江衡的诸多系列画中,反复出现的美女构成了一个贯穿性的符号原型,姑且称之美女系列。仔细审视这些美女,不免会被那些关于看的赤裸真理所震撼。我注意到,在江衡的美女系列作品中,多少有点像瓷娃娃的各式美女,必定个个眼睛大得眩惑恐怖。这些超出了正常比例的大眼睛,把视觉这个消费社会的最要紧的感知体验方式,用一种极端夸张的方式彰显出来。不仅如此,透过那形色各异的眼神和视线,花花世界的种种视觉诱惑暗中传递出来。注意一下黑眼球的高光点处理,从模糊的圆形斑点(如《散落的物品36》),到类似惊叹号的反射(如《散落的物品54》),再到仿佛是窗框的映射(如《美丽的花儿2》),这不同的表达方式折射出眼睛对大千世界的渴望,映射出视线对生活万般神奇的流连。我们不禁为那些夸张的眼睛所惊异,为那些企盼的眼神所感召,为那些欲望化的眼光所迷魅。或许有理由说,美女之瞥不啻是一个关于消费社会的视觉文化寓言。

The femme fatales portrayed by Jiang Heng are artistic symbols of this
consumption era. The title he has given to this series Landscape of the
Consumption Era mainly depicts beautiful women and cutleries which
highlights the two most basic desires: lust and food. Here, I am not
going to analyze the meaning and symbolism of the two, but to focus on
the title, and their associating with the femme fatale and consumption
society. In this sense, Jiang Hengs work series continues to focus on
femme fatale: Femme Fatale; Femme Fatal Fish, Blossom; Blue;
Butterflies, Scattered Objects, Constellation and etc, are all
representations of the consumption society, all reveal the todays
consumption society through these beautiful women. Moreover, the
keywords in these titles: femme fatale, fish, butterfly, blossom, blue,
objects are all etymologically related. Such association weaves into a
network of significance, allowing the meaning of the beautiful women to
gather, disperse, filter and deepen. These series of works shows an
emphasis and an understanding of the close relationship between
consumption and beautiful women, even Jiang Hengs other series that are
seemingly unrelated to beautiful women, Flower Pattern Fabric, Exile,
Toy Pig can also be associated to beautiful women with the same
approach: the basic elements in Flower Pattern Fabric are precisely
those of the femme fatale series, it could be said as a series of
beautiful women beyond the images. The arrows in Exile are the basic
elements of the femme fatales allusions. Therefore, the Exile series can
also be considered as part of the femme fatale series. The object,
context, motions and language of the Toy Pig series all allude to the
beautiful women of the consumption era. In other words, Toy Pig is also
part of the femme fatale series The names given to women in Chinese
society vary from the beginning of the founding of the republic of
comrade, to miss, lady from the reform era, to beautiful woman now in
public spaces. How to understand beautiful women became a topic of
contemporary culture, or even beyond this realm.

Undoubtedly, the painter is most interested in viewing, yet now all
painters consciously treat viewing as the object of representation. In
Jiang Hengs numerous series, the reoccurring image of the femme fatale
became the transgressing emblem, thus entitled the Femme Fatale Series.
Examining these women in detail, we cannot help to be shocked by the
naked truth about viewing. I noticed that Jiang Hengs femme fatale
series are somewhat akin to the ceramic dolls, because their eyes are
nevertheless scarily large. These usual proportions have displayed the
most crucial sensation for this consumption society with the most
exaggerated manner. Moreover, behind the plethora of gazes and stares,
myriads of visual enticements sip out. Noted is the highlight of on the
dark eyes, from the ambiguous round dot (in Scattered Object 36) to the
reflection similar to an exclamation mark (in Scattered Object 54), or
the seemingly reflection of the display window (Beautiful Flower 2).
These ways of expression reflect the eyes desire to the wonders of this
world, and the lingering visions on the enigmas of life. We cannot help
but to feel appalled by those exaggerated eyes, drawn to those longing
eyes, and attracted to the gazes of desire. Perhaps there is reason of
these womens glance is a visual culture fable of the consumption
society.

三,江衡作品的美女特色

图一,马格利特《虚假的镜子》(1928)

III. Characteristics of Jiang Hengs Femme Fatale

图二,江衡《蝴蝶飞飞》(2007)

美女的江衡作品的主体形象。这一美女的江衡特色可以用三点来概括:

这里,我想通过参照比较两幅画来比较,从中也许我们可以解读出江衡大眼美女图的复杂意味。一幅可以比较的是比利时超现实主义画家马格利特的《虚假的镜子》(图一)。在这幅画中,马格利特借助眼球的镜面反射,清晰再现出一幅蓝天白云的真实景象。作为超现实主义画家,这幅画也许反映了记忆中的梦幻之景,但却是以极其真实的自然景象来表现,颇有些假作真来真亦假的意趣。反观江衡作品,比如《蝴蝶飞飞》(图二),美女的眼神充满了好奇,她在凝视这个世界。不仅用自己的眼睛,而且借助放大镜来审视这个世界,要把这个世界看个清楚。假如说马格利特超现实主义的眼光折射出的真实景观是以反语方式的梦幻来表达的话,那么,在江衡的美女那里,眼光却是高度梦幻地真实表达。换言之,美女作为一种审视这个充满了物欲的消费世界象征符号,逼真地彰显出今天这个视觉文化时代的真谛:用眼睛去大量并消费这个世界。这里,眼睛被高度象征化和夸张化了。的确,只要对当下日常生活稍加打量就会发现,一切诱惑人的东西首先呈现为景观(spectacle)。整个世界都已转化为形象,德波说得好:景观是由以下事实所导致的,即现代人完全成了观者。这就导致了景观在现代社会中的统治和暴力。当人们沉溺于日常生活审美化的讨论时,一个重要的事实在江衡的作品中被揭示出来了,那就是今天的文化是一种体验性的文化。体验的首要方式就是视觉,眼睛不仅打量着一切,恰如画面上那美女高度象征性的眼神一样,更重要的是,人们还要借助各种技术手段在视觉上消费这一文化,放大镜不过是各种数字技术、传播技术、视觉技术和消费技术的表征符号而已。于是,看这个原本最常见的行为,以某种陌生化的效果呈现出来,它昭示出在消费时代的视觉文化转向中,视觉欲望及其快感已升格为存在的确证方式我看故我在。马格利特式的梦幻镜像已经远去,美女本身作为视觉对象的大眼凝视,既是一个被表现的图像符号,又是一个吁请观众进入视觉消费并享用视觉盛宴的邀请。不但用肉眼去体验,更要用放大镜一类的技术手段去放大体验。

第一,美女造型的玩具性。江衡的美女形象没有现实主义美术的真实性,而具一种芭比娃娃的玩具性,可以说是一种芭比娃娃的平面化。由于是玩具,可以按照理想进行造型,这一美女理想突出地体现在大眼晴上(大眼睛美女既是西方文化审美观全球化的结果,也是中国文化审美观现代化的结果);由于是玩具,这一美女的理想直接透出了面具性的假,面具性的美正在成为消费社会美女的特征,面具性的美又正适合于消费时代大量涌现的美女的本质:玩具性。

Here, I would like to make a comparison by referring to two paintings,
from which we will perhaps decipher the complex meaning of Jiang Hengs
images of femme fatale. One of the paintings is the Belgian surrealist
painter Rene Magrittes The False Mirror (Image I), in this painting,
Magritte used the reflection of the eye to represent the realistic image
of white clouds in the blue sky. As as surrealist painter, perhaps this
painting reveals the dreamlike view found in ones memory, yet are
presented in its actual natural form, which can seem to have the
somewhat tromp loeil effect. Looking back into Jiang Hengs paintings,
Fluttering Butterfly (Image II), the gaze in his femme fatales is filled
with curiosity, shes staring into this world. Not only with her won
eyes, but uses a magnifying glasses to examine this world, because she
wants to see the world with clarity. If Magrittes surrealist gaze
reflect the actual view is a sarcastic approach to express imagination,
then the gazes of Jiang Hengs femme fatale must be the true expression
of utter imagination. In other words, femme fatale as a symbol of
material desire of the consumption world, has vividly revealed the truth
of todays visual culture: using ones eyes to wager and consume this
society. Here, the eyes are highly exaggerated and symbolized. Indeed,
with slightest attention to our everyday life, one would notice anything
that is attractive is first shown as a spectacle. The entire world has
been transformed to images, as Debord stated, the spectacle is caused by
facts, in other words, people today are observers. This let to the
spectacles monopoly and violence in contemporary society. As people are
absorbed in the discussion of the everyday aesthetics, an important fact
is revealed in Jiang Hengs work, that is, todays culture is an
experiential culture. And the primary approach to experience is seeing,
the eyes not only approximate everything, just as the symbolic gaze of
these beautiful women, but most importantly, people need to appropriate
various techniques to consume such culture visually. The magnifying
glass is the representation of various digital technology, communication
devices, visual technology and consumption methods. Therefore, viewing,
the most common behavior is shown in a rather estranged effect, it
displays the visual desire and its gratification has been augmented to
ways in which to verify ones existence in the transformation of visual
culture of the consumption era I see therefore I am. Magrittes dreamlike
mirror is behind us, the beautiful women as the visual object, stares
with their big eyes, are visual emblem represented, as well as the
invitation to the viewers to enjoy such visual feast. Not only can one
experience with their naked eyes, but also with the assistance of the
magnifying glass to enlarge such experience.

The embellished forms of women in Jiang Hengs works can be summarized
with three characteristics.

至此,我想说,画面上那些大得可怕却又异常真实的美女眼睛,成为一种当下体验之文化的象征。美女及其眼光的双重性质赤裸地呈现出来。作为观者,面对这幅画,我们其实是在看那美女看,凝视那美女的凝视。一方面,美女是作为我们的镜像而存在;另一方面,我们在凝视美女的凝视的同时,也成为美女凝视的镜像,此乃视觉文化的视线互文性的辩证法。说到这里,我们更深刻地理解了梅洛庞蒂的话:看正像一个十字路口一样,是所有方面交汇遇合之点。人们所见和使之被见的东西,在存在之物上的这种进动,就是看本身。

First of all, the doll characteristics of the female figure. Jiang Hengs
female figure does not conjure truth from realist art, but embodies that
of the Barbie Dolls. In other words, transforming Barbie dolls in
two-dimensional space. As a toy, it can be shaped according to ones
will. It is ideally highlighted through her big eyes (the big eyes are
not only the global aesthetics of western culture, but also the result
of modernizing Chinese aesthetic taste); because it is a toy, the ideal
of this beautiful woman directly reveals the falsehood of its masking
nature. The beauty in masking is becoming the characteristic of women in
the consumption society, moreover, the masking beauty is appropriate for
the essence of the beautiful women in this society: its doll-like
characteristic.

Therefore, I would like to comment that the scarily large yet real eyes
have became the cultural emblem to experience current culture. The
dichotomous quality of the femme fatale and their gazes are presented
literally. As a viewer, confronted with this painting, we are in fact
viewing the gaze of this beauty and stare into her stare. On the one
hand, these beautiful women exist as the image in the mirror; on the
other hand, while we stare into their stares weve became the image in
the mirror of their gaze, this is the dialectics of visual culture. It
helps us to further understand Maurice Merleau-Pontys statement, Viewing
is like being at the crossroad, it is where all directions meet. What
people perceive and made seen, evolves above existence, is the act of
viewing.

第二,美女形象的消费性。江衡的美女,以一种欲望对象的方式显示出来。这在两个系列《消费时代的景观》和《美女鱼》中特别明显。在《消费时代的景观》中,美女被放置在饮食的盘中,构成了色食相加,有一盘一女,有两盘两女,有三盘三女,还有整整一排,还有多排群体这是美女的盛宴,是消费时代的欲望盛宴。那些对嘴唇进行强调的食盘美女,突出了美女之为食,那无头而高举大腿的女体,强调了无思想有肉体的欲望,特别是那趴在盘中臀部高翘之体态,透出了欲望消费的多重隐喻。如果说在《消费时代的景观》中,是用食盘来暗喻美女的可食性,那么在《美女鱼》中,则用鱼来突出美女既是消费欲望对象,又是消费欲望主体。鱼在中国文化中,是繁衍的喻体,这里不妨解读为美女作为消费商品在消费时代的繁荣。鱼在中国文化中,也是繁衍生命的行为象征,男女交合被称为鱼水之欢,在《美女鱼》系列中,美女总是被置身于水中,而无数的鱼儿在其周遭游动。而在消费时代,鱼,已经与人的繁衍无关,而与由生命繁衍行为本身的快感有关,是欲望游戏和欲望快感的象征。被鱼包围的美女,在一幅幅不同的图画中,显出了多种多样的表情,特别是那一眼闭一眼睁显出的媚态,突出了美女不但是消费场中的消费对象,也是进入消费场中的欲望主体。主体/对象/消费/欲望,理解了这四个关键词,美女形象的玩具性中的美而假和假而美的消费意义和时代意义才透了出来。

接着,我们来比较另外一幅画,即美国波普的代表人物维塞尔曼的《伟大的美国裸女第59号》。我不知道江衡的美女系列是否受到美国波普艺术的这位代表人物的启发。但比较两人的系列是耐人寻味的。一系列显而易见的相似不必强调了,比如美女系列这种创意本身。我感兴趣是如下发现,在维塞尔曼的美国裸女系列画中,从来就不画眼睛,由此来突出地强调了美女的性感特征;而在江衡的美女系列中(如图三《蝴蝶飞飞17》),性感的艳俗仿佛被瓷娃娃式的玻璃效果间离了,但却凸现了美女的大眼睛及其盛满欲望的眼神。

Secondly, it is the consumability of the female figure. Jiang Hengs
femme fatales are displayed in a fashion of the desired object. It is
especially conspicuous in the series of Landscape of the Consumption Era
and Femme Fatale Fish. In Landscape of the Consumption Era, the
beautiful women are placed in on plates, mixing lust and food. Some are
one woman on a single plate, others show two women on two plates, and so
on so forth – it is a feast of women, a feast of desire in an era of
consumption. Those femme fatales highlighted lips shows her edible
nature, and her headless body and raised legs emphasize a mindless yet
physical desire, especially those pose with hips raised up high – a
display of multiple metaphors in the consumption of desires. Similarly,
Femme Fatale Fish uses fish as the object of consumption, as well as
being the main body of consumption. Fish in Chinese culture is symbolic
of reproduction, marriage of men and women is known as the happiness of
fish in water. In the Femme Fatale Fish series, the beautiful women are
often placed in water, and numerous fish swim around it. However, in the
consumption era, fish is already irrelevant to the reproduction of men,
but related to the satisfaction of the act of mating, symbolizing games
and satisfaction of ones desire. The women surrounded by fish have shown
varying expressions on different paintings, especially her flirtatious
look of the winking eye, underlines that beautiful women are not only
the object of consumption, but also the main body of those who consume.
Once one understands the meaning of the
subject/object/consumption/desire, could the meaning of consumption and
the meaning of this era found in the false beauty of these women become
apparent.

Then lets compare the other painting, the American Pop artist Tom
Wesslemanns The Great American Nude 59. I am uncertain whether Jiang
Hengs femme fatale series are influenced by this American Pop artist.
Although the comparison of these two artists can be mesmerizing. Without
mentioning the similarity of their series of works, in terms of their
creativity. What interests me is that Wasslemanns Nude series have never
painted the eyes onto the women, in order to emphasize the sexy
characteristics of women; whereas in Jiang Hengs femme fatale
(Fluttering Butterfly 17) the kitsch sexiness seem to be separated from
the glassy effect of the ceramic-like dolls, yet highlights the big eyes
and her desire filled gaze.

第三,美女修饰的寓意性。从《消费时代的景观》中的食盘和《美女鱼》中的鱼,突出了江衡把美女放置进的环境,有着思想的寓意性。从这一角度看,美女画中的环境不是一般的环境,而是对美女进行定义的环境,严格地讲,美女形象本身不是写实主义的,从而美女画中的环境不应叫做环境,而是对美女进行强化主题的装饰性元素。而这些装饰性也不是随意所至、随便画出,而是精心布置、定身打造的。顺着美女主题系列一一看去,对美女进行修饰的元素一一地展现出来,而这些元素在《花布》系列中得到了集中的体现:金鱼、苹果、花朵、蝴蝶、大腿、高跟鞋、药丸、飞机、手枪这些元素都是美女形象中一个方面的体现,这些元素都有深厚的文化史和美学史的内蕴,消费时代美女的特征通过这些形象化的元素而得到了进一步的呈现。这些元素,当其单独地与美女配合出现时,突出消费时代美女的某一方面的意义,当其成组地与美女配合出现时,暗喻着消费时代美女多方面的复杂内容。且让我们对美女的修饰性元素进行专门读解。

图三,江衡《蝴蝶飞飞17》(2008)

Thirdly, the metaphorical meaning of these beautiful women. The plates
in Landscape of Consumption Era and the fish in Femme Fatale Fish
highlights the context in which the beauties appear inform us the
metaphorical meaning in the artists thinking. Form this view, the
context is that in which defines the beauties, strictly speaking, since
these figures are not realist portraits, therefore, the context should
not be referred to their context, but the decorative elements to
reinforce the ideas behind these women. These decorative elements are
not done at ones will, but purposefully contemplated. As we look through
the femme fatale series, and as these elements unfold, eventually they
were gathered in the series of Flower Pattern Fabric: goldfish, apple,
flower, butterfly, legs, stilettos, pills, airplane, hand gun each
symbolize one aspect of the femme fatale, which are all rich in meanings
from a culture and art historical point of view. Furthermore, the
characteristics of beautiful women of the consumption era are further
displayed. These elements, when each accompanies a beauty, they imply
the multiple complexities of women of this era. Let us examine the
decorative elements for these femme fatale.

图四,维塞尔曼《伟大的美国裸女59号》(1965)

四 美女塑型中的元素喻体

从绘画传统上说,中国绘画历来强调眼睛是传神写照之阿堵,所谓画龙不点睛的故事是耳熟能详的。维塞尔曼画女不点睛显然有另外的考虑,也许是在他看来,这些裸女已沦落到了只有身而没有心的地步了,因此作为心灵窗口的传神阿堵也就没有必要了,或者说,只有那红唇、乳头等符号,才具有凸现好莱坞式性感特征高度象征意义,眼睛已退化为可有可无之物。江衡的美女系列作品反其道而行之,眼睛乃此系列作品最核心的图像符号。画女不但必点睛,而且以极其夸张方式来点睛。性感的艳俗在江衡笔下的美女那里已经不再是什么新鲜主题,他要表达的也许是眼睛与世界的象征关系:这是一个受到视觉统治的时代,生存的快乐和体验有赖于视觉的把握。由此,江衡的美女系列作品便越出了美式波普艺术的艳俗性感窠臼,切入一个当代文化的视觉主题:看的质询性。王尔德早就指出,看一样东西与看见一样东西全然不同。我们可以天天看世界,却有可能什么也没有看见。江衡美女系列那瞪大的眼睛和富有穿透力的目光,或许是在质询看本身,召唤看的在场,把看径直转变为看见。因为事物存在是因为我们看见它们,我们看见什么,我们如何看见它,这是依影响我们的艺术而决定的。(王尔德语)这不正是画家想要我们明白的真相吗?

在美女的主要元素中,每一元素都包含着复杂的内容

Speaking of traditional painting, Chinese paintings have always
emphasized the key of passing on the spirit through the eyes, which
explains not drawing the eyes to dragons. Wasslemanns women without eyes
perhaps originate in other thinking, perhaps in his view, these nude
women have became soulless bodies, therefore it is unnecessary to draw
the window to their soul, or perhaps only the lips and nipple can best
represent the sexual characteristics of Hollywood symbolism, and the
eyes became dispensable. Jiang Hengs femme fatale series on the
contrary, depict the eyes are its core emblem. It is not only a must to
paint the women with eyes, but had to be done in the most exaggerated
approach. The sexy kitsch is no longer a novelty under Jiang Hengs
brush, what he would like to express is the symbolic relationship
between the eyes and the world, where the world is in a visually
dominated era, the joy of ones existence and experience relies on ones
visual command. Hence, Jiang Hengs femme fatale series transcends the
American Pop art kitsch art, but penetrates into the visual topic of
modern culture: the inquest of viewing. Wang Erde has pointed out before
that, to view an object is entirely different from having seen an
object. We look at the world daily, but could have seen nothing at all.
The big eyes in Jiang Hengs femme fatale series with piercing gazes is
perhaps questioning the act of viewing, calling on the presence of
viewing, transforming viewing from seeing. The objects existence is
because we have seen them, what we see, how we see it, depends on the
art influencing us. Isnt that the truth the artist would like us to
know?

鱼:在中国文化中是性欲望和性快乐的隐喻;

作为结语,我想说,画面上那些浸润了看的吁请力量的目光,不断地在打量和考验着观者的目光,质询着我们:你是否感悟到消费时代的视觉体验的真谛了?你是否把看变成了看见?你是否从看见中看到了看的反思性?一如梅洛庞蒂所言:对象在我们眼睛下面,排除并散发出它们的实体,它们直接询问我们的目光,它们考验着我们的身体与世界达成的共同协议。

苹果:在古希腊就是与女性和由女性而引起的战争典故;

In summary, I would like to say that the gazes on the images soaked up
with invitation constantly approximates and contests the viewers gaze,
questioning us whether we have understood the truth from the visual
experience of this consumption era? Whether you have transformed seeing
to viewing? Have you witnessed the reflexive nature in viewing? As
Merleau-Ponty stated, the object is below our eyes, that rejects and
disperses their truth form, they question our gaze directly. They
challenge the agreement we have reached with our body and this world.

花朵:在每一文化中,都是美人美色的明喻;

蝴蝶:既是美人(花蝴蝶)又是追求美人(蝴蝶采花);