【澳门微尼斯人手机版】拒绝成长的物欲偶像江衡的媚眼与观看_艺术家资讯_雅昌新闻

谈论江衡的艺术,有几个关键点是必须提到的,这些关键点是:

首先要提到江衡的老师。江衡当年就读于广州华南师大美术学院,跟从李邦耀学习油画。本来,常识判断,华师美术学院从档次和规格上似乎应该比广州美术学院略逊一筹,但是,正因为华师美术学院在九十年代初期果断地从湖北美术学院引进了一批老师,他们同时也是中国当代艺术运动的重要成员,结果便逐渐改变了学院原有的艺术生态,在南方本地的气氛之中,催生了完全不同的艺术结果。江衡是这结果之一。

当年南下的艺术家,今天仍然留在华师美院教书的,除了李邦耀之外,还有方少华、杨国辛和石磊、他们四人的油画在当代油画艺术格局中各有位置。尤其重要的是,他们带来了发轫于内地的艺术思想和造型观念,包括九十年代初湖北的政治波普和他们所特有的表现主义描绘方式。更重要的是,他们在教学中一直强调个性的张扬,强调个人与情境的结合,强调艺术对现实的干预,从而形成有意义的艺术问题,并以此为基础去达成切入当下的目的。看江衡早期留下来的几幅油画,的确受到非本土因素的影响。1994年的《无题》系列,主角是扭动的红色男人体,背景则是表达欲望的图案。这几张作品混杂了某些波普的风格,却又用了表现的手法,有着湖北画风的影子。1996年的《卡通一代系列》,在画风上则显然受到李邦耀艺术的影响。毫无疑问,这是江衡艺术的风格起点。

其次,九十年代中广州以黄一瀚为首的卡通一代运动,对江衡形成了直接的影响。今天,已经没有谁去怀疑广州的卡通一代了,即使评价有差异,但风靡当下画坛的所谓卡通风,追根溯源,和广州还是有着密切的联系。我的意思并不是说所有包含卡通风格的艺术都根源于广州的卡通一代。在我看来,造成卡通风气漫延的原因,比人们想象的还要复杂,来源更是千差万别,但类似风格的确是在广州最早出现的。有意思的是,身为广州美院教师的黄一瀚,却要到华师美院来寻找支持,让第一回展和第二回展在华师美院展厅成功举办。这说明华师美院的确存在着某种令人感动的宽容气氛。江衡从一开始就是广州卡通一代的积极参与者,并用自己的油画风格去印证卡通的合理性。以至于最后成为九十年代中期中国卡通一代的重要艺术家代表人物之一。上面提到的《卡通一代》系列,就是这场不大不小的南方艺术运动的直接结果。后来他那著名的风格标志,也就是睁着天真媚眼、高度物质化的女性偶像,就是在这当中成型的。

再其次,发生在九十年代中国社会的急剧转型,尤其是发生在南方的经济改革大潮,不但彻底改变了以往艺术所固有的精神格局与表现方式,而且,更重要的是,这场大潮还催生了新生代直接而坦率的物质欲望。不要小瞧这场在转型当中催生出来的物质欲望,也不要把这欲望仅仅看成是一种被动反应,恰恰相反,今天,中国的物欲,早就超越了自我范畴,而成长为一种精神现象。忽视这一精神现象,我们就无法对当下艺术做出哪怕是万分之一的客观判断。

也就是说,来自内地的艺术思潮、本土掀起的艺术运动和中国社会的急剧转型,是造成江衡艺术之面貌的外部条件,没有这些条件,很难想象他会创作出现在人们所熟悉的风格。

除此之外,江衡本人的视角,他对生活和社会的独特把持,对他人与艺术的广泛认识,也起到了关键的作用。

现在,世人所熟悉的江衡的艺术,便是他那几乎千篇一律的符号化的媚眼美女,她们傻笑着,做着各种符合世俗要求的媚态和表情,传递着一种或可称之为天真与美丽的性别信息。从某种意义来看,我觉得江衡的媚眼美女像是一句重复出现的反语,述说着与表面信息完全相反、甚至是相互抵触和冲突的内容。

记得当年我在一篇谈论广州卡通一代的文章中,提到了造成这种风格出现的某些原因:

卡通一代首先针对的对象是自己,看自己是否具备足够的穿透力,用以穿透南方人在文化上的局限性,以便得到一块观察的平台,并为作品的文化价值寻找新的定位。作为外来文明的一块跳板,南方的确具备了某种优越性,但处在边缘区域,受各种各样的诱惑太多,艺术容易走向肤浅和矫情,也是显然的事实。......影响我们的正是对所谓深度的不正常迷恋。......卡通大量涌向中国,既迅速冲垮原来的古典阅读方式,也造就了与五、六十年代相异的卡通人。同时,电脑的普及以及人造环境的空前增长,进一步阻隔了人与自然的有机联系,使得除了卡通人之外,又不断产生大量的电脑人。卡通一代的发起人黄一瀚用我们是长不大的孩子来命名他的一件作品,其实用这个题目来指称那些生理上过早成熟而心理上却迟迟不发育、整天埋头在卡通和电脑之中难以自拔的新一代的族群是相当确切的。[1][1]

出现在当年的这场南方艺术运动,曾经受到几乎整个艺术界的反对。曾几何时,类似风格却成为大多数70年代以后出生的新艺术家群体的图式选择。这种现象在时空中的反差,甚至导致了人们对当初事实的忽视。就像一开始我所指出的,江衡属于早期的卡通一代,他的符号形成与发展已经有近十年的时间。从这个角度来说,我也算是比较早对这一艺术现象做出反应的批评家。检索当年言论,我发现,我所感兴趣的并不是表面的卡通。站在今天的情境去审视当年,所谓卡通,可能只是一种巧妙的图式挪用策略。当然,其中也呈现了年轻一代成长时特有的视觉背景。就在批评家用不同的概念去述说今天的卡通风格时,我觉得其中一个问题是,他们几乎都对卡通当了真,而忘记类似风格早在七十年代前后,就成为出版产业和影像产业的重要内容。我之所以把当年自己的言论刊在这里,是我发现,即使在当年的关注中,我就已经多多少少地把卡通视为与成长密切相关的一个问题。黄一瀚提出长不大的孩子,可能只是他作为长辈对年轻人的主观看法。如果稍微深入到新一代的具体环境中,对于成长,他们所面临的,显然不是长不大,而是拒绝长大。这种拒绝的态度,切中了与成长有关的社会与历史背景,体现了成人社会和非成人社会的紧张关系,甚至是冲突关系。我承认,当年我也只是看到生理成熟心理不成熟这个自为是的表象,而忽略了其中的意义。在我看来,新艺术家们之所以选择偏向卡通或与卡通趣味有关的形象,表面看是其青春期受特定的视觉形象影响的结果,但深入看,却透露了他们在成长过程中,对规训其发育的成人社会的态度。如果这个猜测成立,那么,我要说,呈现在视觉上的形象的某种一致性,本身就是一个有趣的答案,并告诉我们,他们是如何看待成人社会的。面对一个日益虚伪的犬儒化成人社会,作为艺术家,他们大概只能通过选择曾经被成人社会所遗弃或忽视的形象类型,比如卡通,来表达对这个社会的拒绝。当然,随着艺术界本身的变化,卡通也开始成为一种显赫的风格,使拒绝上升为新一轮的艺术运动。后起的追随者究竟是否因为相同的原因,还是为业已成功的前景所左右,才继续选择卡通,这自然要另当别论了。

当我把江衡的媚眼美女放在这样一个与成长相关的背景上时,他的作品的反语效果就开始呈现出来了。那是一个潜藏在青春早期甚至前青春期的粉红色梦想,曾经是成人社会压制的对象,并且和一个时期以来,艺术界所推崇的深度背道而驰。自然,就反语而言,我并不是说江衡有意要用媚眼美女这样一种视觉修辞去从事反抗或者讽刺。我相信他并没有反语式的创作意图。也就是说,他不关心表面的反抗。他甚至一点也不反抗。相反,他只关心图像所传达的物质欲望。正因为这样,我才读解出他作品中的某种真实性,因为内里所透露的,可能连他本人都不能清醒意识到,是一种拒绝成人社会的温软态度。

这样,我以为我们就能理解江衡笔下的媚眼美女了。那本来就不是真实的美女,而是想象中的物欲偶像,呆在虚空中,瞪着假装天真的媚眼,以永远不变的面容和表情,注视着成人社会的持续膨胀。也就是说,江衡通过媚眼美女,既实现了他的拒绝意图,让年龄永远驻足在足以让艺术家感到愉快率性的时刻,同时又把一种少年的伤痛隐藏了起来,而用偶像取代对现实的插入。

Materialistic Idols Reluctance to Grow Up

– Jiang Hengs Flirtatious eyes and Gaze

Yang Xiaoyan

Speaking of Jiang Hengs art, one must mention a few key points. They
are:

First of all, we must speak of Jiang Hengs professor. Jiang Heng was a
student in the oil painting department at the art college of Huanan
Normal University, and studied under professor Li Bangyao. Albeit our
common understanding that Huanan Normal University categorizes as an
institution of a lower tier in comparison to the Guangzhou Academy of
Art, however Huanan Normal University hired a groups of professors from
Hubei Academy of Art in the early 90s. They were once important players
in the movement of contemporary Chinese art. As a result, their presence
at the art college has gradually changed its artistic ecology of the
former academy. With the local southern artistic sphere, it had induced
completely different artistic outcomes. And Jiang Heng is part of its
harvest.

Among the artists who came to the south and are still teaching at the
art college of Huanan Normal University, besides Li Bangyao, there are
also Fang Shaohua, Yang Guoxin and Shi Lei, they each occupies an
important position in the framework of contemporary oil painting. What
is especially important is their importation of artistic thoughts and
compositional concept from Chinas interior. It includes the Political
Pop art from Hubei in the early 90s and the artists individualized
approach of representation in expressionism. More importantly,
throughout their teaching, they have always put the emphasis on
highlighting individuality, emphasizing on incorporating the individual
with his emotions, emphasizing art as an intervention on reality. With
which, meaningful artistic issues could be formulated, and using it as a
base of entry to current matters. Looking at a few oil paintings from
Jiang Hengs earlier period, they were indeed influenced by foreign
elements. For example, Jiangs Untitled series from 1994 depicts a red
male body in swing as its main subject and contrasting with a background
motif expressing desire. These works have mixed certain styles of pop
art, yet was executed in the expressionist approach. There are shadows
of the Hubei style of painting. And the Cartoon Generation series from
1996, has stylistically reflected the art of Li Bangyao. Without a
doubt, this was the formative years of Jiang Hengs artistic style.

Secondly, the cartoon generation movement headed by Huang Yihang in the
Guangzhou area in the mid-nineties has also had a direct impact on Jiang
Heng. Today, no one questions the significance of the Cartoon Generation
from Guangzhou, even though there are different opinions about it.
Although if we trace back on the origin of the so-called cartoon wave
now popular in the art arena, we find close ties with Guangzhou. I am
not making the statement that art with cartoon features are all derived
from the Guangzhous Cartoon Generation. In my view, the reason for the
popularization of cartoon style is more complex than what we imagine,
its sources were diverse. However, similar styles were indeed first
appeared in Guangzhou. What is interesting is, as a professor of the
Guangzhou Academy of Art, Huang Hanyi had to come to Huanan Normal
University art college to seek for support. Thus the first and second
exhibitions were successfully held at the exhibition hall of the art
college. It demonstrates certain moving tolerance from the art college
of Huanan Normal University. Jiang Heng has been one of the active
participants in the formative stage of Guangzhous Cartoon Generation,
and testified for the rationale of cartoon with his own style of oil
painting. Consequently, he became one of the most representative Chinese
artists from the Cartoon Generation in the mid-nineties. The
aforementioned Cartoon Series was a direct outcome of this sizable
southern artistic movement. Later on, his famous signature style wide
opened eyes with the nave and flirtatious gaze on the highly
materialistic female idols, was formulated in this process.

Moreover, the rapid transformation of Chinese society in the 90s,
especially once the wave of economic reform hit on the southern
provinces, not only the existing spiritual framework and its artistic
approach of representation were completely changed, but more
importantly, this wave has induced the direct representation of the New
Generations materialistic desire. One should not belittle the material
desire induced from this transformation, nor should one treat such
desire as a passive reaction. In contrast, the materialistic desire in
China today has far exceeds the boundary of the individual, but has
grown into a spiritual phenomenon. If we ignore this phenomenon, we will
be unable to make the slightest objective judgment on the art of today.

In other words, the artistic trend from Chinas interior, the local
uprising of artistic movement and the rapid transformation of Chinese
society make part for the external conditions of Jiang Hengs art form.
Without these conditions, it would be difficult to imagine how he could
formulate the style we are familiar with today.

Besides, Jiang Hengs perspective, his unique view on life and society,
as well as his overall understanding of others and on art were also
crucial to this formation.

Today, Jiang Hengs art people are familiar with is his repetitive
symbolized beautiful women gazing with flirtatious eyes, they smile
innocently, posing in various flirtatious poses and expressions that
satisfies the secular standard. They display this kind of so-called nave
and beautiful gendered information. To a certain extent, I think Jiang
Hengs women with flirtatious looks is a repetitive statement of sarcasm,
it conveys information contrasting with its superficial appearance, or
even of opposing and conflicting content.

I remember in one of my essays discussing the Cartoon Generation of
Guangzhou, I have mentioned certain causes for the formation of this
style,

The primary subject of the Cartoon Generation is the self, whether the
self possess sufficient ability of transcendence, can the self go beyond
the boundary of southern culture in order to gain a new platform of
observation, and to redefine themselves according to the cultural value
of their artwork. As a steppingstone to foreign civilization, there are
indeed certain advantages in the south. However, as region on the
periphery, it is lured by various sources, therefore it is easy for art
to sidetrack to the path of superficiality and contentiousness, which is
now obviously a fact. what influences us is precisely the abnormal
infatuation of the so-called depth. cartoon overflowing into china
caused the traditional way of reading to rapidly collapse. This gave
birth to many of the cartoon characters from the 1950s and 1960s. At the
same time, the popularization of computer technology and the increase on
artificial environments further barricade the organic relationship
between human and nature, yielding large production of computer
characters besides the already existing cartoon characters. The founder
of Cartoon Generation, Huang Yihan has entitled his first work, We are
children reluctant to grow up. The truth is, this title accurately
refers to the younger generation who has physically reached maturity yet
are psychologically lacking behind a generation who completely immersed
themselves in comics and computers. [2]

This southern art movement at the time was once almost rejected by the
entire art world. And not so long ago, its similar style has become the
illustrative choice for most young artistic groups born in the 1970s.
The contrasts of this phenomenon in time have even caused people to
ignore its initial fact. As I have mentioned at the beginning, Jiang
Heng belongs to the earlier Cartoon Generation, the formation and
development of his symbolism has been almost ten years. From this
perspective, I am also one of the earliest critics who have commented on
this artistic phenomenon. As I retrieve my comment from the time, I
discover that my interest was not on the cartoon per se. To analyze them
with todays context, the so-called cartoon perhaps was only a
intelligible strategy of compositional appropriation. Of course, from
which we also find the visual reference specific to that young
generation. As critics apply different concept to comment on the styles
of todays cartoon, I think one of the problems among them is their
gullible believe in Cartoon, and have forgotten that similar style has
already been important content in publishing and film industries around
the 1970s. The reason I am reiterating my comment from the past is that
I discover, even with my view at the time, I have already more or less
treated cartoon as an intimate issue reflecting on the process of
growing up. The Children reluctant to grow up proposed by Huang Yihan
was perhaps his subjective view of young people as an elder. If we enter
into the particular context of the new generation, in terms of growing
up, what is before them is obvious not unable to grow up, but refusing
to grow up. This attitude of reluctance strikes a cord with the social
and historical background associated with growing up, which reveals the
intense, or even conflicting relationship between the adult society and
its non-adult counterpart. I admit, what I noticed at the time was the
symptom of physical maturity and psychological immaturity, but have
perhaps neglected its meaning. In my view, the reasons for artists to
choose cartoon or cartoon-like forms, from the surface its an outcome of
their specific visual influence during their adolescent period, more
thoroughly, it infiltrates their attitudes on the adult society that
manipulates their growing process. If this hypothesis is true, then
certain types of uniformity shown visually are in themselves an
interesting response. It tells us how they view the grown-ups society.
In dealing with the grown-ups society, that is becoming gradually
pretentious and cynical, as artists, they can perhaps only use forms
that has once been abandoned or neglected by the grown-up society, such
as cartoon, to express their rejection of this society (here I am
referring to the art world in the grown-up society). Of course, as the
art world transforms itself, cartoon began to come a prominent style,
and letting this rejection to become the beginning of a new cycle of art
movement. Whether its later followers shared similar motives, or was
driven by the prospect of future success and have chosen cartoon, of
course needs to be discussed otherwise.

As I set Jiang Hengs flirtatious beauties against the background related
growing up, the sarcasm of his works began to emerge. The rosy dream
hidden subconsciously in the early years of adolescence or
pre-adolescence was once oppressed from the adult world, and also parts
separate ways with the promotion of depth in the art world in the past
while. Naturally, as of sarcasm, I am not emphasizing Jiang Hengs
intended flirtatious beauties as a visual description to react or
ridicule. I believe he did not have any sarcastic creative intent. In
other words, he is not interested in the superficial reaction. Or even,
hes not rebellious at all. In the contrary, he is only concerned with
the material desire conveyed through the images. It is precisely for
this reason, could I have interpreted the certain truth in his works,
because what it essentially displays, perhaps he might not even be
clearly aware of, is a kind of deterrent attitude in rejecting the
grown-up society.

With this, I think we have a better understand the flirtatious beauties
under Jiang Hengs brush. They were not representations of true beauty to
begin with, but the imagined idols of desire, who are placed in a void,
gazing with pretentious and nave eyes, observing the constant inflation
of the grown-up society with their constant facial expression. In sum,
Jiang Heng has not only realized his intent of rejection with the women
gazing flirtatiously, but have allowed that age to be eternally planted
in a moment of enjoyment for the artist. At the same time, he has also
concealed a type of sorrow of adolescence, and has used idols to replace
the intervention of reality.

[1][1] 见《卡通一代:关于中国南方消费生活的报告》,自存稿。

[2] See Cartoon Generation: Report on Consumption Life in Southern
China, unpublished text.