从“太虚幻境”到“失乐园——江衡作品一瞥_艺术家资讯_雅昌新闻

美国作家马克吐温有一本小说《汤姆索耶历险记》,有评论者说,这部小说是为儿童写的,但成年人读了,也能对自己的童年有一个美好的回忆。英国作家詹姆斯巴里也写了一本小说《彼得潘》,写一个拒绝长大的小孩彼得潘,读起来能使人忘记尘世的烦嚣和纷扰,找回一丝宁静和纯真。

人物画、肖像画历来是视觉艺术景观中最为引人瞩目的部分,人类通过身体认识世界,作为视觉对象和视觉表象的身体是人类关照自身进而关照世界的途径和方式,因此一部艺术史甚至可以浓缩为人物形象史,或者说是身体的历史。

读完这些儿童小说,再来看江衡的画,会有一种奇特的感受。那些小说是写给儿童看的,用成人的眼睛看儿童,看到了生活中纯真的一面。江衡的画则正好相反,是画给成人看的青春启示录。在这里面,有儿童的趣味,有儿童式对纯真的追求,但却有着儿童所没有的对生活的深入理解,有对世道人生的深深的忧虑。

Figure paintings and portraitures have always been the most attractive
elements in the visual arts, people learn about the world through the
body. Body as a visual object and visual representation is an approach
in which people reflect upon themselves and the world at large,
therefore the history of art can often be condensed to the history of
portraits, or history of the body.

在这本画册中,有美女与鱼系列,有散落的物品系列,有蝴蝶飞飞系列,还有带着预示性的流亡图系列,带着批判性的消费的景观系列。

其中女性形象更是时代视觉的焦点,作为具有鲜明象征意义的符号,在单纯的生理意义之外,女性被不断赋予各种社会的、文化的涵义,因此不管是中国还是西方,一部女性视觉形象史既是艺术形象变迁史,也是美学意识的流变史,当然还是社会形象嬗变史,映照出社会及文化的沧海桑田。

将这前面所说的四个系列联在一道,暗示这样一个青春觉醒的顺序。鱼从来是与性和生殖联系在一起。从西安半坡的《人面含鱼图》开始,鱼就有了与性的联系。闻一多先生曾专门写过《说鱼》一文,从中华文明发源早期时的鱼崇拜与性和生殖的关系说起。美丽少女有了青春的觉醒,有了对性的懵懂意识。

Amongst which, the female figure becomes the visual focus of any given
time. With distinctive symbolic meaning, besides its physiological
meaning, females have been assigned to various social and cultural
significances. Whether in the West or in China, a visual history of
female portraits is not only an developmental history of art, but also
the transformation of aesthetic ideology. Of course, it is also the
history of social evolution, reflecting the diversity of a given society
and culture.

在散落的物品和消费的景观系列中,少女暴露在种种诱惑之中。时尚、药、暴力、性,种种的小物件叙述着各自的故事,现代社会的种种诱惑使她心醉神迷。在种种冲动、诱惑中,生命在消耗着。这正是消费社会的景观。在消费社会中,生命正是这样被消费掉的。

而在视觉艺术领域,作为视觉符号和语言的艺术图式具有至关重要的意义,它既传达了视觉效果和审美心理,同时也阐释了其文化意义、传播了相关文化语境,可以说,确立图式和个性化、风格化具有同构作用。对每一个艺术家而言,艺术图式的自我确立可谓其最高追求。女性形象图式的探索是人物画的重要命题,众多艺术家们为此而皓首穷经。绵延千年的中国仕女画佳作迭出,为人类文化贡献了无数精华和传奇,《洛神赋图》、《捣练图》、《簪花仕女图》等至今让当代人动容折腰。从汉朝帛画开始,仕女图式随着时代、文化的变迁而变化:魏晋神仙贤妇的高古飘逸,唐代贵族的丰腴闲适,宋元平民的细腻丰富,直到明清时代,文化的衰弱表征为女性形象的柔弱、忧郁和纤瘦。因此到了19世纪末20世纪初,所谓传统仕女画的内涵相对固定,宣扬女性倚风娇无力的阴柔、赢弱、幽郁之美,追求柔和、恬静、含蓄的品格,所以削肩、丹凤眼、柳叶眉、瓜子脸、樱桃小口的美人成为传统仕女形象的标准图式。

蝴蝶飞飞给人以正面的想象。蝴蝶在中华意象中,代表一种纯情。梁祝就是将他们的纯情化成蝴蝶的。蝴蝶是会飞回来的。飞来飞去的蝴蝶,将要落在何处?生活在一个所谓的后现代的环境中,伴随着蝴蝶的,不只是玫瑰,还有手枪和药。

In the field of visual arts, the motif as visual symbols and language
plays a pivotal role. It does not only achieve certain visual effects
and satisfy aesthetic psychology, at the same time it explains the
cultural significance and relevant cultural context entailed. In other
words, to establish a motif and individual and stylistic elements are
mutually effective. For each artist, to establish an artistic motif is
considered his ultimate pursuit. The exploration of the female figure
has been an important theme in portraiture. Many artists study the
subject throughout their lives. The thousands of years of Chinese
paintings on courtesan ladies have contributed a plethora of essence and
legends to Chinese art. The Nymph of Luo River, Ladies Preparing Newly
Woven Silk, Cout Ladies Wearing Flower Headdresses, are works still
mesmerize the contemporaries. Since paintings on silk of the Han
dynasty, paintings on courtesans have transformed with time and cultural
transformation from being fluid and elegant wise women of the Wei and
Jin dynasty, to the plumb nobles of the Tang dynasty, to the delicate
and rich commoners of the Song and Yuan dynasty, to representation of
cultural downfall with women portrayed as weak, melancholy and fragile.
Therefore, at the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th
century, the meaning of so-called traditional paintings on court ladies
is relatively fixed, it exemplifies the feminine qualities of fragile
beauty as gentle and exquisite, feeble, melancholic, soft, tranquil, and
introverted. Therefore, the traditional courtesans are often portrayed
with sloping shoulders, small eyes, thin eyebrows, slim faces, and tiny
mouths.

接下来就是流亡图了。箭如雨下,万箭穿心,但这一切又似乎没有什么可悲伤的。箭到之处,无论是鲜花,还是恐龙,还是美少女,都在流血。但是,这似乎又不是一个凄惨恐怖的场面。色彩仍然那么鲜丽,姿态仍不失从容。画家不想渲泻什么情绪,而是在讲述一个简单的事实。

在20世纪的历史进程和视觉文本中,女性形象成了具有重大象征和突破意义的视觉符号,它与个性解放、思想解放、女性解放等主题紧密相联,女性对自由和独立的呼唤呐喊成为时代最响亮最迫切的声音之一,女性图式随之发生重大转变。建国后的革命美术中,根正苗红、吃苦耐劳的铁姑娘是新时代美好女性的代言人,在文革后的伤痕美术、乡土现实主义、新古典主义等美术潮流中,女性大多被寄予了个性化、人性化的理想品格,何家英、王沂东、靳尚谊、杨飞云、陈逸飞等人的画里,女性形象美好而温润。

这是一个失乐园的故事。画家没有哀叹失乐园,也没有企盼复乐园。青春一去不复返。拒绝成长,还是会成长的。问题是,失乐园后怎么办?

Throughout the historical development and visual archives of the 20th
century, the female figure becomes the most symbolic and penetrating
visual emblem. It is closely tied to the liberation of individualism,
emancipation of conservative mentalities, and the emancipation of women.
The womens scream for freedom and independence thus became the loudest
sound of this era. Subsequently, the motif of women underwent
significant transformation. The revolutionary art after the founding of
the Peoples republic, the righteous, hardworking iron-women were
representatives of the new era, in the scar art, folk realist art and
new classical art after the Cultural Revolution, most women were
portrayed with individualism, personal ideals and qualities. Among the
paintings by He Jiaying, Wang Yidong, Jin Shangyi, Yang Feiyun, Chen
Yifei and others, the female image is portrayed idyllically and moist.

在消费时代的景观系列中,我们看到一些触目惊心的画面。美丽的少女被放在了盘子里,端上了桌。这是在明明白白地宣示,美丽少女只是一些消费的对象。她们不是人,不是生命,我们与她们不是人与人相处时的那种相互的关系。对我们来说,她们(或者更准确地说,它们)只是供消费的图像。

90年代以来消费文化浩浩荡荡带来了新的价值新的理念,物体系成为新文化的温床、母体、制约者和规训者,作为消费文化观察者、叙述者、表现者的女性形象必然发生重大转折和变更。敏感的视觉艺术家们如何描绘我们时代的女性形象?或者说当代仕女图式应该如何绘制?为时代女性画像,创建具备当代性的仕女图式,是艺术面临的重大挑战,也是艺术家的重要机遇。

这几幅画是一把绝好的钥匙,可以使我们领悟画家使用卡通造型的原因。在谈论图像时,海德格尔区分了世界图像和关于世界的图像。关于世界的图像是指向所指的能指,而世界图像是没有所指的能指。当没有所指之时,图像取代了真实的世界。世界图像是实际上是只有图像没有世界,或者说,是图像取代世界。卡通造型,也就清楚地揭示这个道理。

Since the 1990s, consumer culture has brought forth new values and new
ideals. The materialistic system became the breading ground, nourishing
body, restriction and regulator for the new culture. The female figure
as the observer, narrator, player of the consumer culture, certainly
would undergo drastic changes. How would the sensible visual artist
portray the female figure of our time? In other words, how would one
paint the image of the contemporary courtesan? To paint the portrait of
the contemporary women in the style of courtesan women, yet without
losing a sense of time, became the biggest challenge for artists, at the
same time, it was also an important opportunity.

这部青春启示录,不是意在告诉我们青春的意义,恰恰相反,它所揭示的是青春变得无意义。一切都是亮丽的,一切又都是虚假的。图像时代来了,生活的真褅丧失了。我们从哪儿才能找到被图像所掩盖的真实世界,我们怎样才能回到我们自身。这是时代向我们提出的问题,也是这部画册向我们提出的问题。

在众多风格迥异的创作中,艺术家江衡绘制了一份出人意表的视觉答卷。从90年代开始,江衡就孜孜不倦埋首于当代美女的创作,《美女鱼》系列、《满天星》系列、《散落的物品》系列、《消费时代的景观》系列,一直到2008年的《花蝴蝶》、《蝴蝶飞飞》系列,美人,是画面永恒的主角。可以说,他是当代美人图的忠实的探索者、创作者。

摘之《艺术家图像志江衡》

Among different styles, the artist Jiang Heng presents a visual answer
much to our surprises. Since the 1990s, Jiang Heng has been painting the
femme fatale of the present, Femme Fatale-Fish, Starry Night, Scattered
Objects, Landscape of the Consumption Era, until the Butterfly,
Fluttering Butterfly series of 2008, beautiful women has been the main
character throughout. We can say, Hes an avid explorer and creator of
contemporary paintings of beauty.

From Visionary Emptiness to Lost Paradise A look into Jiang Hengs
work

但是,江衡的美人却完全打破了我们的视觉惯式和心理预期:浮华艳丽的背景上,大眼睛小嘴巴的标准美女们鲜艳欲滴,丰满的身躯和水草般丰茂的头发呈现出逼人的青春和美艳。与美人相伴的是鱼、花朵、蝴蝶这些传统仕女图中经常出现的意象,所以单单从题材上看,跟传统仕女图并无分别。在创作于2003年的《消费时代的景观》之10中,甚至出现了非常传统的水墨意境。

Gao Jianping (Ph.D candidate of Uppsala University of Sweden)

However, Jiang Hengs beautiful women have completely subverted our
visual habits and psychological expectations: under the glamorous
background, the standardized large eyes and small lips in women are
bright, their voluptuous bodies and the seaweed-like hair are vivid
beauties of youth. Accompanying the beauties are fish, flower,
butterfly, images that often appear in traditional courtesan paintings.
Therefore, thematically speaking, they are not much different from its
traditional counterparts. In Landscape of Consumption Era X from 2003,
one could even notice the realm attained in traditional ink painting.

The American writer Mark Twains novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer,
believed by some critics as written for children, that could also evoke
the adults wonderful memories of their childhood. The British writer
J.M. Barries Peter Pan depicts Peter Pans refusal to grow up that allows
the reader to forger about all the worldly noise and disputes in
exchange for a moment of tranquility and innocence.

但是,天壤之别的差异恰恰出现在美人的身上:江衡的美人们美则美矣,却是无法消受的美女,不仅不具备温香软玉的温暖质感,取而代之的倒是一股冰冷的、不可接近的机械的味道、物的味道。即使斜眼媚笑,美人们滚圆的玻璃珠子般的眼睛里射出的还是冷冰冰的光,她们的笑容节制而冰冷,仿佛不食人间烟火,与画面鲜艳的糖果色调形成极大的反差,一个冰冷一个火热。美人们虽然青春无敌,但不可触摸不能交谈,没有鲜活的生命气息,正如《蝴蝶飞飞》中的花蝴蝶,虽然鲜艳却缺乏活力缺少生命,只能成为标本。

Looking at Jiang Hengs paintings once having read these childrens
stories, ones impression of it would be unique. Those novels are written
for children, yet looking at them from the adults perspective at
children, we receive the innocent facet of life. Jiang Hengs paintings
are of the contrary. They are paintings of youthful enlightenment for
adults. Here, there are childish characteristics, and the childrens
pursuit for innocence, but also ones deep understanding of life that is
absent for children, as well as ones profound anxiety of the world.

Yet, the obvious distinction resides in these beauties: Jiang Hengs
femme fatales, although beautiful, are yet non-consumable, not only do
they lack the warm quality of tame fragrance and preciousness, instead
are replaced with the sense of unapproachable mechanical and material
flavor. Even their flirtatious smirk, and what transmits from their
round glassy eyes are still frigid stares, their smiles are reserved and
cold, as if they are unworldly, which contrasts with the bright candy
colors of these images. One is frigid, the other warm. Even though these
beautiful women are youthful, but they are unreachable and cant
communicate with, lacking any liveliness, just as the butterflies in
Fluttering Butterfly, although bright in color, but lacks life, which
can only be made into samples.

This catalogue encompasses the Femme Fatale and Fish series, Dispersed
Objects, Fluttering Butterfly, and the indicative Exile, and the
critical Consuming Landscape.

是的,江衡的美女正是我们时代的标本,物质时代的身体标本。当代文化对身体的强调达到前所未有的重视程度,身体与阶级、身体与权力、身体的意义和策略一直是关注焦点,但身体的肉体化和社会化的功能被统一于消费社会的物化和欲望化,因此观赏性、肉体性、细节性等视觉性特征得到前所未有的强化。

The first four series underlines an order of youthful awakening. The
fish is often associated with sexuality and reproduction. Since the
Banpo culture from Xian, its Fish Face Figure has already been
associated fish with sexuality. Mr. Wen Yiduo has specifically written
On Fish that began with the idolization of fish with sex and
reproduction in Chinas early civilization. The beautiful women are
dawned with youthful awakening and muddled awareness of sexuality.

Precisely, Jiang Hengs femme fatales are samples of our time, the body
sample of a material era. The focus on the body in contemporary culture
has reached an unprecedented height, body and class, body and power, the
meaning of the body and strategy have always been the points of focus,
but the physicality of the body and its social implications have been
generalized as the materialized consumption society and our desire for
it. For this reason, the decorative, physical, and details of visual
characteristics are enforced.